Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: January 29, 2015

Froggy Foibles

City of Melbourne prepares to see some emails lovely as its trees

January 29, 2015
Category: Froggy Foibles

… The city council has devised an interactive urban forest map that provides individual data on each of the 70,000 trees that line the streets and parks of central Melbourne. Each tree is assigned an identification number, which allows you to email it. Ostensibly this is to report damaged branches, but emailed expressions of tree devotion have been received from admirers. Alas, the trees haven’t been tapping away at laptops with their twigs, asking email pests to leaf them alone. Instead a team at the city of Melbourne has branched out from other duties to field the emails.

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Business & Politics

Tembec reports financial results for its first quarter ended December 27, 2014

Canada Newswire press release
January 29, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada

MONTREAL – Consolidated sales for the three-month period ended December 27, 2014, were $332 million, as compared to $354 million in the same quarter a year ago. The Company generated a net loss of $62 million or $0.62 per share in the December 2014 quarter compared to net earnings of $2 million or $0.02 per share in the December 2013 quarter. The current quarter results include a non-recurring debt refinancing charge of $37 million and a non-cash loss of $17 million related to the translation of US dollar denominated debt.

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Domtar expands The Paper Trail, digital transparency tool that traces impacts of paper production

Market Watch
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada

Domtar Corporation today announced significant updates to The Paper Trail(®), its award-winning interactive tool that helps customers trace the impacts of their paper purchases. The totally renovated site includes social and economic information in addition to environmental data, broadening the meaning of sustainability. It represents Domtar’s belief that businesses should operate transparently, pulling back the curtain on their operations and the resulting impacts. With the latest additions, The Paper Trail (www.domtarpapertrail.com) now showcases the people and places behind the products, featuring stories and photos from all 13 of Domtar’s North American mills. 

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Pierre Lapointe honored by PAPTAC with Bates award

Pulp & Paper Canada
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada

Pierre Lapointe, president and CEO of FPInnovations, will be presented the John S. Bates Memorial Gold Medal, one of PAPTAC’s highest individual honours. The Bates medal is awarded to a member of the association in recognition of their great contribution to the science and technology of the pulp and paper industry. The award presentation to Lapointe will take place on Feb. 5, during the Awards Business Luncheon at PaperWeek Canada.

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Norbord Q4 sales affected by stronger U.S. dollar, weaker prices for wood panels

Canadian Press
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada

TORONTO – Norbord Inc. reports that 2014 was disappointing year for the wood panel manufacturer, but it sees better days ahead due to a planned merger with Ainsworth Lumber  and prospects for improved conditions in its core markets, particularly the United States. …In a note to shareholders, Norbord president and CEO Peter Wijnbergen said the company’s financial performance “did not live up to our expectations” — with the U.S. house construction market improving more slowly than anticipated. “While this is disappointing, we have continued to see double-digit year-over-year growth in our sales to home improvement centre and industrial customers, which has partially offset the slower-than-expected housing recovery,” Wijnbergen said.

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Opinion: Help wanted in that other resource sector

by David Lindsay, president and CEO of the Forest Products Association of Canada.
Vancouver Sun
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Entering 2015, B.C. and Canada are facing economic challenges. While much of the debate and discussion has revolved around the price of oil and gas, it is fair to say jobs and economic opportunity still exists in that “other” resource sector, the forest products industry. During years of upheaval, the sector seemed to fade into the background as oil and other resource industries drew the attention of the nation and the world. But over the past decade, the forest industry has been quietly working in the background, doing the heavy lifting to develop world-leading practices, invest in research and development, diversify global markets, and become a more modern and innovative sector. So today an often over-looked resource industry finds itself on the rise and looking for workers to help fulfill its enormous potential.

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Vancouver’s port defends decision that put 550 truckers out of work

Move to limit port terminal licences was necessary to prevent undercutting, says Port Metro Vancouver
Business in Vancouver
January 27, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Port Metro Vancouver is defending a decision that has left around 550 port truckers looking for work elsewhere. On January 23, the port authority released a list of 68 trucking companies it had given licenses to in order to access port terminals. Those companies represented 1,450 trucks, out of the entire fleet of around 2,000. In a press release, Port Metro Vancouver says limiting the number of trucks was necessary to prevent persistent undercutting. “For years, the local container trucking sector that serves Port Metro Vancouver has been unstable and drivers have found it increasingly difficult to make a living,” said the port authority in its release.

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Canfor Sells Taylor Pulp mill to Canfor Pulp Products Incorporated

Canada Newswire press release
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

VANCOUVER,  – Canfor Corporation (TSX: CFP) announced today the sale of its Taylor, BC pulp mill to its subsidiary company, Canfor Pulp Products Incorporated (TSX: CFX). This transaction will impact the management reporting structure of Taylor Pulp within Canfor Corporation but is not anticipated to have any operational impacts. The agreement includes a purchase price of approximately $15 million including working capital, along with additional consideration to be paid by Canfor Pulp over a three year period contingent on the financial results of Taylor Pulp over that time.

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Canfor Pulp to acquire Taylor Pulp mill from Canfor Corporation

Canada News Wire
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

VANCOUVER – Canfor Pulp Products Incorporated announced today that it has entered into an agreement to purchase the Taylor, BC pulp mill from its parent company, Canfor Corporation. The agreement includes a purchase price of approximately $15 million including working capital, along with additional consideration to be paid by Canfor Pulp over a three year period contingent on the financial results of Taylor Pulp over that time… Taylor Pulp employs 106 people and has an annual production capacity of 220,000 tonnes of bleached chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp.

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Tembec’s new turbine passes commercial-in-service test at its Temiscaming site

Canada Newswire press release
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada

MONTREAL – Tembec announces that the recently installed turbine at the Temiscaming site has successfully met the commercial-in-service test set forth in the power purchase agreement (“PPA”) it entered into with Hydro-Québec. The turbine operated for 100 continuous hours above the required level specified in the PPA. The Company was successful in meeting the test on its first attempt. This represents a significant milestone for the Company as the turbine qualification allows it to sell electricity to Hydro-Québec at the more favorable “green” power rate. The new boiler and turbine will materially improve the Temiscaming specialty cellulose mill’s cost structure and profitability.

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Changes Tweak California Lumber Assessment

Building Products.com
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States, US West

Effective Jan. 1, changes to the California Lumber Assessment now allow some dealers to no longer collect the 1% lumber tax, supposedly easing the burden for retailers who sell smaller quantities. But the new rules may actually make things more difficult. AB 2031, approved by the state legislature last year, contained two major alterations aimed at making the assessment less onerous… The new rules, although aimed at making compliance easier, have created numerous new problems, according to Ken Dunham, head of the West Coast Lumber & Building Material Association. 

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Finnish forest industry investment declines 13% in 2014

Timber Trade Journal
January 28, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International

Finnish forest industry investment declined by more than 13% to €573m, according to research by the Confederation of Finnish Industries. And the forest industry has also lost its position as the largest investor among industries in Finland. The largest investor last year was the chemical industry with a sum of €1.04bn, followed by the machinery and metal products sector with €717m and the food industry €616m, leaving the forest industry a distant fourth. 

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Wood, Paper & Green Building

Slide Show: WoodWorks announces its 2015 Wood Design Award Winners

Inhabitat
January 28, 2015
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: United States

WoodWorks, an initiative of the Wood Products Council, just announced the winners of its 2015 Wood Design Awards at the Bay Area Wood Solutions Fair in Oakland, and the designs are stunning! The buildings celebrate innovative thinking in the use of timber and expand the possibilities of its use by bringing wood’s costs, sustainability and other advantages into the limelight. Sixteen projects were chosen in nine categories: Institutional Wood Design, Wood School Design, Commercial Wood Design, Multi-Story Wood Design, Beauty of Wood, Green Building with Wood, Traditional Use of Wood, Innovative Wood Engineering, Regional Excellence and Jury’s Choice.

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Tenants File Class Action Lawsuit In Wake Of Massive Fire At Edgewater, NJ Apartment Complex

CBS New York
January 28, 2015
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: US East, United States

EDGEWATER, N.J. – Two tenants of an apartment complex in Edgewater, New Jersey that was mostly destroyed in a fire have filed a class action lawsuit on behalf of all residents… Fire Chief Thomas Jacobson said the fire quickly spread through the floors and walls because of the building’s lightweight wood construction. “If it was made out of concrete and cinder block, we wouldn’t have this problem,” Jacobson said last week, adding the building complied with construction codes… The suit says that Avalon was made of lightweight wood construction “that may have accelerated the spread of the fire.” Greenberg said there are also “differing views” on whether the building was up to code.

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Tasmanian joiner on his lifelong love of ‘warm and human’ timbers

ABC News, Australia
January 29, 2015
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: International

Maurice Smith says all timbers have their own unique qualities which is part of what has kept him working with the product for most of his life. Fittingly surrounded by trees, Mr Smith’s back shed is where the 60-year-old joiner and carpenter loves to spend his time making things from timber. Mr Smith has no limits to his work with wood. He makes furniture, kitchens, doors, restorations and replications, and says he is only really limited by his own imagination.  From an early age Mr Smith was encouraged by his father, also a timber worker, to use tools and learn things for himself, which did not always work in the young boy’s favour.

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Forestry

B.C. protects old-growth forests in Peace region

BC Government
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

VICTORIA – The B.C. government is continuing to protect old-growth forests and enhance biodiversity by establishing 79 old growth management areas under the Oil and Gas Activities Act, Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations Minister Steve Thomson announced today. This group of old growth management areas covers 82,841 hectares in four Natural Disturbance Units within the Dawson Creek Timber Supply Area, mostly west and southwest of Dawson Creek. Many of them are located between Hudson’s Hope and Pine Le Moray Provincial Park, and in the Hart Ranges between Pine Le Moray Provincial Park and Kakwa Provincial Park and Protected Area.

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There was a time when watersheds were off-limits to everyone

Comox Valley Record
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Dear editor, Who were the idiots that thought it was okay to log in a watershed? It used to be that watersheds were sacrosanct and off limits to everyone and everything (you used to have to have a permit and a health certificate to even enter a watershed) because the forest floor acts like a huge sponge that holds the rainwater and slowly releases it, while acting like a filter as the rainwater runs slowly through it, downhill, into the reservoir. Logged off areas no longer absorb and filter water, they contaminate it with surface dirt and debris and we are seeing the results.

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Prentice launches probe into Métis development deal

Edmonton Journal
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Premier Jim Prentice has ordered an investigation into allegations about an economic development agreement between three northern Alberta Métis settlements and an international timber-products firm. Prentice appointed KPMG in November to investigate “more than one” formal complaint from Métis settlement members, Jessica Johnson, director of communications with the Aboriginal Relations ministry, said Wednesday. The complaints allege three settlement councils breached the Métis Settlements Act and council policy by signing a joint-venture agreement last year with Active Energy Group… She said she couldn’t provide the names of those who complained.

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Kaska writing resource law to bring ‘certainty’ on First Nation consent

Globe and Mail
January 29, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

A First Nation that claims as its traditional territory an area the size of the United Kingdom is writing a new “resource law” to govern how and where industry operates in northern B.C., southeast Yukon and in the southwest corner of the Northwest Territories. The rugged area occupied by the Kaska Nation, which has about 3,000 members in five bands, is rich in copper, gold and other minerals, as well as oil, gas and timber. …“It’ll cover mineral resources, forestry, oil and gas and there’s much more to be added on,” Mr. Ladue said.

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Responsible parties should pay for turbidity issue

Letter by Mike Sutcliffe
Comox Valley Record
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

…The damage that has been done rests on the shoulders of the federal, provincial governments and TimberWest. It seems that the forestry regulations have been changed by both governments and that TimberWest has been allowed to cut without consideration to our water supply. What can we do now? Perhaps our MLA, Don McRae, and our MP, John Duncan, could stand up and go to bat for the taxpaying, voting citizens of the Comox Valley. It is obvious that logging practices should cease in our watershed and that intensive replanting operations should begin immediately.

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Timmins man caught taking roadside logs

Timmins Times
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada East, Canada

A Timmins-area man has been fined $1,600 for violations under the Crown Forest Sustainability Act, said a government news release issued Wednesday. Daniel Goold recently pleaded guilty to unlawfully removing logs that were not scaled and was fined $1,100. He was also fined $500 for making a false statement to a conservation officer regarding the origin and ownership of the logs, said the release from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry.

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‘Big Burn’ on PBS depicts 1910 disaster that shaped Forest Service

The Missoulian
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States

t’s no spoiler to give away the ending of “The Big Burn” – the fire dies and the U.S. Forest Service lives. But that doesn’t mean the PBS documentary based on Tim Egan’s book by the same name doesn’t leave us with an unresolved cliffhanger. “It’s not surprising the fires of 1910 cast such a huge shadow on the Forest Service and had such an effect going forward,” said film writer and director Stephen Ives. “What should have been the Forest Service’s worst hour turned out to be their creation myth – forest rangers as American heroes. But I think to be fair, something like the Big Burn was so unprecedented, it couldn’t have been imagined. It ultimately revealed the flaws and complicated contradictions at the heart of our forest policy.”

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Logging tops the list of the 20 deadliest jobs in America

The Washington Post
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States

WASHINGTON — From “The Deadliest Catch” to “Reno 911,” there are plenty of popular representations of Americans doing dangerous work. Yet, occupations with the highest risk of death are not always the ones you hear about. This chart shows data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for the 20 most dangerous occupations, excluding some similar categories. Lumberjacks, fishermen and pilots run the greatest risks at work. In general, people who work with heavy machinery, from hedge trimmers to combines, are in more danger.

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Forester teaches tree owners management

Capital Press.com
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

University of Idaho Extension forester Chris Schnepf, based in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho, makes sure family forest owners get the knowledge they need to make decisions about their land management… Schnepf speaks to a broad audience that includes family forest owners, who own roughly 40 percent of the forest land in the panhandle; loggers; and professional foresters. “My goal is to give them enough forest ecological literacy to make decisions that are going to help them meet their goals in their forest,” he said.

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A Midstream View: The misdeeds of government

Calaveras Enterprise
January 27, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

Don’t lie, cheat or steal … the government hates competition. That’s an ancient phrase that is sometimes visionary. Sierra Pacific Industries’ experiences with the U.S. Forest Service and Cal Fire following the so-called Moonlight Fire is one example. Some Calaveras County residents disapprove of SPI’s timber harvesting methods. However, SPI follows California’s voluminous Forest Practices Act. Objective people will judge cases on their merits. The Moonlight Fire began in Plumas County on Sept. 3, 2007, and burned 65,000 acres, including 45,000 acres of national forest land.

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A multimillion dollar budget hit looms for schools in timber country

Idaho Statesman
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

Schools in Idaho timber country could face a multimillion dollar budget hit. The reason: Congress has failed to reauthorize a 2000 federal law that provided a financial safety net for schools and counties in timber country. In 2013-14, Idaho received $28.3 million for roads and schools, under the Secure Rural Schools and Community Self-Determination Act. Idaho’s 2015 payment will barely exceed $2 million. About a quarter of Idaho’s $28.3 million, slightly under $7.2 million, went to school districts.  Since Secure Rural Schools payments were designed to offset declines in timber receipts, they were funneled to schools with an abundance of federal forests.

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New DNR project to assist private forest landowners

Upper Michigan Source
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

The Michigan Department of Natural Resources announced a $1 million, five-year partnership with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service. According to the DNR, this project will provide training for foresters and wildlife biologists who provide assistance to private forest landowners in Michigan. “This innovative partnership will combine the strengths of both of our organizations to increase services to the 400,000 private forest landowners throughout Michigan,” said Mike Smalligan, Forest Stewardship Program coordinator for the DNR. 

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New Sealaska logging sites near earlier cuts (& audio)

CoastAlaska News
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

Sealaska says it will begin logging its new lands later this year. Federal legislation passed in December turned over 70,000 acres of the Tongass National Forest to Southeast Alaska’s regional Native corporation. The first two parcels to be cut will be on north Election Creek, on Prince of Wales Island, and the Cleveland Peninsula, north of Ketchikan.  They add up to about 3,400 acres of old-growth forest near land Sealaska’s already logged.

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Emerald Ash Borer

Delta Farm Press
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

…In July 2014, Arkansas became the twenty-fourth state to detect and confirm the presence of the Emerald Ash Borer. Currently, there are six counties in south central Arkansas confirmed to have the borer. …It is a matter of some concern that this pest is now within 150 miles, or less, of our large, ash-rich bottomland hardwood forests such as the Delta National Forest, White River National Wildlife Refuge and thousands of acres of privately owned timber and hunting land. …Presently, there are no practical means of controlling the spread of this insect that is considered by some to be the most destructive forest pest ever seen in North America and for which the scope of the damage could reach billions of dollars nationwide if not stopped.

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Roads are encroaching deeper into the Amazon rainforest, study says

January 29, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

Roads across Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and western Brazil could open up a ‘Pandora’s box’ of negative environmental impacts and trigger new deforestation fronts, the study published in Environmental Research Letters finds. “The hydrocarbon frontier keeps pushing deeper into the Amazon and there needs to be a strategic plan for how future development takes place in regards to roads,” said the report’s lead author, Matt Finer, of the Amazon Conservation Association. “We pay particular attention to access roads because they are a well-documented primary driver of deforestation and forest degradation.”

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Stop Selling Off Our Forests

By The New Zealand First Party
Scoop Independent News
January 29, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

The National government is once again allowing more forests to fall into foreign ownership, says New Zealand First. “Here we go again. More land being sold to foreign buyers, this time covered with trees that will return a substantial income to someone outside New Zealand,” says Primary Industries spokesperson Richard Prosser. “This is stupidity bordering on criminal.” “The government needs to stop the sales and start looking after the livelihoods of New Zealanders. “Prime Minister John Key should stand by his promise to create 150,000 jobs and his statement that he is worried about New Zealanders being peasants on their own land.

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Forest disaster monitoring system put in place

Inside Korea
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

A new monitoring system to instantly detect forest disasters, including forest fires, has now been put in place. When a forest fire occurs, the new system will help locate historical monuments or other important buildings that are nearby, as well as overhead power lines. The system can also detect epidemics of pine wilt disease, trace infected areas and help respond to such outbreaks. The Korea Forest Service recently announced its new forest disaster comprehensive management system to monitor forest disasters in a bid to guard against forest fires and disease and to effectively respond to damages caused by such disasters.

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Forestry scraps controversial plans for aerial weed spraying near Bellingen

ABC News, Australia
January 29, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

The Forestry Corporation has scrapped controversial plans to aerially spray herbicides over a significant portion of the Gladstone State Forest. Earlier this month the Corporation notified nearby residents of their plans to apply herbicides via helicopter to three compartments of the forest, to control weed growth. Residents in the nearby Kalang area raised concerns aerial spraying could see the chemicals drift onto their properties, and run into nearby waterways.

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Deforestation May Be Ramping Up in Papua, West Papua

The Epoch Times
January 28, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

…While it may be understood that large-scale deforestation in Papua and West Papua is still in its early stages, finding accurate deforestation data for these two provinces is no easy task. As a result, conflicting numbers published by the government and NGOs tell vastly different stories about what’s really happening on the ground. …But although deforestation has not been as rampant in these regions as it has been for other Indonesian provinces, Charles Tawaru, Greenpeace’s forest campaigner in Papua, says that one thing is for certain: “The forests of Papua and West Papua continue to be degraded.” 

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Tree-eating giant pine scale from Europe threatens Australia’s softwood industry

ABC News, Australia
January 29, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

An exotic pest originating in Greece and Turkey is threatening Australia’s $1 billion softwood plantation industry. The giant pine scale is causing “fairly significant” damage to pine, fir and spruce trees in Melbourne and South Australia. Although it is called giant pine scale, the bug is only 12 millimetres long, but that is huge in comparison to other scale insects, which can be difficult to see. It is the first time the scale has been found in Australia, and about 500 trees in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs have been damaged.

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Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

Lavington residents continue pellet plant battle

Vernon Morning Star
January 28, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: Canada, Canada West

Some Lavington residents are demanding answers over a controversial pellet plant proposal. On Monday, Coldstream council was handed a letter from a group of residents upset with a recent decision to issue a building permit for a pellet plant on School Road next to the Tolko mill. “We are still getting additional signatories to the letter, but wanted it entered into the public record at this meeting,” said Tom Coape-Arnold, with Lavington Is For Everyone. In the letter to Mayor Jim Garlick, the 71 residents ask council if it will refuse to issue a development permit until it’s guaranteed provincial air quality objectives will be met.

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New Report Urges Western Governments to Reconsider Reliance on Biofuels

New York Times
January 28, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States

Western governments have made a wrong turn in energy policy by supporting the large-scale conversion of plants into fuel and should reconsider that strategy, according to a new report from a prominent environmental think tank… The American industry supplying that market says that it uses only waste wood or trees that would be cut down anyway when overgrown forests are thinned, and that it pays close attention to issues of sustainability. “We believe in mitigating climate change,” said M. Seth Ginther, executive director of the U.S. Industrial Pellet Association. But some environmental groups have grown dubious of that assertion and argue that the continued growth of the wood-pellet industry is putting natural forests at risk. They are pressuring the European Union to reconsider its approach.

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Tree populations in northern MN could shift with climate change, study finds

The project is the first of its kind in northern Minnesota.
Minnesota Daily
January 28, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States, US West

Northern Minnesota forests are home to many trees, like spruces and firs, which may not survive as climate change progresses, according to a University of Minnesota study published last week. Boreal trees, which currently dominate Minnesota’s northern forests, thrive in cooler climates. And as warmer temperatures encroach on the region, the research, which is a part of a project called B4WarmED, found those trees could be overtaken by other trees, like maples and oaks, that thrive in warmer climates. Researchers tested the effect of warmer temperatures on boreal trees along the Canadian border over three years to better understand the potential impact of climate change on northern Minnesota’s tree population.

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Biofuels are not a green alternative to fossil fuels

January 29, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: International

Powering cars with corn and burning wood to make electricity might seem like a way to lessen dependence on fossil fuels and help solve the climate crisis. But although some forms of bioenergy can play a helpful role, dedicating land specifically for generating bioenergy is unwise. It uses land needed for food production and carbon storage, it requires large areas to generate just a small amount of fuel, and it won’t typically cut greenhouse gas emissions. First, dedicating areas to bioenergy production increases competition for land.

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How tropical subsoil microbes could affect the carbon cycle

Phys.Org
January 28, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: International

It’s no exaggeration to say the tropics drive our planet’s carbon cycle – the constant transfer of carbon back and forth, on a global scale, between living things and the environment. Understanding the dynamics of the carbon cycle is increasingly important because more carbon in the atmosphere increases the warming greenhouse effect… Tropical forest soils contain more carbon than all living vegetation on Earth. And we’d like to keep it that way… Keeping soil carbon in the ground, particularly in the tropics, is critically important to maintaining Earth’s climatic stability.

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