Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: November 24, 2015

Froggy Foibles

Movie review: One man’s desperate act revisited in Hadwin’s Judgement

Montreal Gazette
November 23, 2015
Category: Froggy Foibles
Region: Canada

A man swims across a river, chainsaw in hand, and fells a 300-year-old tree on protected aboriginal land. If he did it for the greater good, would we be able to hear the message? That’s one of the implied questions in British director Sasha Snow’s alternately evocative and melodramatic docudrama Hadwin’s Judgement. The NFB-co-produced account of the outrageous, confusing but ultimately powerful final statement of B.C. logger-turned-activist Grant Hadwin probes the contradictions surrounding the above-noted controversial act, which took place on January 20, 1997. Hadwin fits the description. A Paul Bunyan-type character, larger than life, the superhuman B.C. native started off working for the logging companies. He would bound through virgin rainforests, picking and marking the most valuable trees and charting paths for roads to be built so that logging companies could get the most bang for their buck.

Read More

Business & Politics

ITC says subsidies unfairly aided Canadian paper companies

Ripon Advance News Service
November 23, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

The International Trade Commission (ITC) determined in a 5-0 vote this week that unfair subsidies for Canadian supercalendared paper were unlawfully hurting Maine businesses in a victory for U.S. Rep. Bruce Poliquin (R-ME) who first raised the issue.  The Department of Commerce will now finalize a countervailing duty on imports of supercalendared paper from Canada as a result of ITC’s investigation.  The issue was raised by a petition from the Coalition of Fair Paper Imports, which includes Maine’s Madison Paper Industries (MPI), that alleged that Canadian supercalendared paper producers, including Port Hawkesbury Paper Company, benefited from subsidies from the Canadian government. 

Read More

Irving Pulp and Paper mill operating after fire

Fire Saturday temporarily shut down scrubber unit and boiler
CBC News
November 23, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada

J.D. Irving Ltd. is reporting the Irving Pulp and Paper Mill in Saint John is operating normally after its scrubber unit was brought back on line Sunday. An electrical fire Saturday night damaged the exterior of a building housing the electrostatic precipitator unit and some surrounding utilities. The unit acts as a scrubber to control emissions at the mill. J.D. Irving Ltd. vice-president Mary Keith said there were no environmental issues as a result of fire. “The electrostatic precipitator was back in service and fully operational when the boiler started up yesterday morning,” said Keith. Keith said the boiler was immediately shut down at the time of the fire until the situation was under control.

Read More

Universal Forest Products Eyes Growth on Solid Portfolio

Zacks Equity Research
November 23, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States

We issued an updated research report on Universal Forest Products Inc. (UFPI – Analyst Report) on Nov 20, 2015. The company engineers, manufactures, treats, distributes and installs lumber, composite wood, plastic and other building products. Universal Forest Products stands well-positioned to reap benefits from strengthening demand in the U.S. construction market, especially in the commercial construction. Housing starts are predicted to remain strong in the quarters ahead. Backed by strong prospects, Universal Forest Products targets to achieve roughly $3 billion in sales (including new product sales of $250 million) and take operating margins to normal historical levels by 2017.

Read More

Gov. Hutchinson signs letter of intent for $1.3 billion Chinese superproject in Arkansas

KATV
November 23, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: US East, United States

LITTLE ROCK – Gov. Asa Hutchinson (R) has signed a “letter of intent on investment cooperation” with Chinese-based Shandong Sun Paper Industry Joint Stock Co. to pursue a $1.3 billion pulp mill to be located in south Arkansas. In attendance at the signing ceremony were U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker, Gov. Hutchinson, Chairman and Founder of Sun Paper Co. Hongxin Li, Arkansas Economic Development Director Mike Preston, and U.S. Consulate General Charles Bennett. The agreement moves forward efforts between Sun Paper and Arkansas economic development officials for a “fluff pulp” factory, which would primarily create materials for baby diapers and other products. If the plant moves forward, it would be Sun Paper’s first North American operation.

Sun Paper, Hutchinson Sign Intent Letter to Study $1.4B South Arkansas Plant from Arkansas Business

Read More

Buyer of Duluth’s shuttered Georgia-Pacific hardboard plant revealed

Duluth News Tribune
November 23, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: US East, United States

Jeff Foster likes the potential of the former Georgia-Pacific complex on Duluth’s industrial harborfront so much he bought the place. oster revealed Monday that he was the buyer for the sprawling, 19-acre site on Railroad Street that has 350,000 square feet of indoor space. “The possibilities are endless. It’s an amazing site and I think we’ll see great things there,’’ Foster told the News Tribune. The former composite board manufacturing plant, which Duluthians often refer to as the Superwood plant, shuttered in 2012. Foster already is moving in some “warehousing and transportation logistics” segments of his big Superior-based trucking company, Jeff Foster Trucking, which he founded in 1981.

Read More

Special Report: China Softwood Log Market Update: Q3/2015

International Wood Markets
November 24, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International

More than 34.2 million m3 of logs that were valued at US$6.4 billion were imported into China during the first three quarters of 2015, a decline of 14% in volume and 31% in value compared with the same period in 2014. Of the total log imports, softwood imports were valued at about US$2.8 billion on a volume of 22.8 million m3 (an average value of US$122/m3).
China softwood log markets have been very weak for more than a year (declining in price since Q1/2014), and both demand and market prices have been moving lower. However, this situation has changed over the last two months.  [Full report available to Wood Markets subscribers only]

Read More

Lindex commits to forest-friendly viscose supply chain

Just Style
November 23, 2015
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International

European fashion chain Lindex has become the latest company to join the CanopyStyle pledge to ensure the rayon, modal or viscose fibres in its garments does not come from ancient and endangered forests. The initiative by environmental not-for-profit organization Canopy has also secured the support of Arcadia, owner of the TopShope and Miss Selfridge chains, and C&A China. They join existing members Eileen Fisher, Quicksilver, Patagonia, Levi Strauss, H&M, Marks & Spenser and Inditex/Zara. 

Read More

Wood, Paper & Green Building

Scottish architect’s Design-Build company MAKAR is doing wonders with wood

Treehugger
November 24, 2015
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: International

MAKAR is “an architect-led design and build service delivering contemporary ecological homes;” it’s principal, Neil Sutherland, was in Washington to attend Greenbuild. “We believe in delivering healthy and inspiring homes that are sensitive to the environment. Produced by a local workforce, MAKAR support the Scottish economy by sourcing high quality materials from our network of the best suppliers. …MAKAR has developed their own closed panel system which differs from panels produced by most other manufacturers through the intergration of locally grown timber and natural insulation materials. MAKAR use cellulose and sheeps’ wool insulation as an alternative means of achieving good energy performance. Insulation in MAKAR’s closed panel is sealed between the interior and exterior surfaces of the cassette whilst in factory conditions ensuring that insulation material is not exposed to moisture on site.

Read More

Forestry

Changes made to old growth management areas in Cariboo

Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations
BC Government
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Following a public review and comment period and discussions with local First Nations and stakeholders earlier this year, the boundaries of about 400 existing old growth management areas (OGMAs) in the Quesnel Natural Resource District have been adjusted. Old growth management areas help protect the biological diversity of old-growth forests by ensuring that stands of different ecosystem types are protected. These areas are excluded from commercial timber harvesting, which helps preserve plant ecosystems, wildlife habitat and cultural values. The amendments to the old growth management areas in the Quesnel Natural Resource District came into effect on Oct. 26, 2015.

Read More

Saulteau’s agreement with B.C. a ‘huge milestone’

Reconciliation deal will see nation get a ‘fair share’ of resource revenues
Alaska Highway News
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The chief of Saulteau First Nations says newly signed natural resource and reconciliation deals with the province are the biggest thing since Treaty 8. On Sunday, the nations celebrated the signing of New Relationship and Reconciliation agreements in a ceremony attended by three provincial ministers. “It’s a huge milestone in our nation’s history and the province’s history,” said Chief Nathan Parenteau. “It’s our next biggest agreement, the only bigger one would be the treaties in 1914. This is another step down that path.” The sweeping agreements will give Saulteau greater say over natural gas, coal and forestry developments in the nations’ traditional territory, centred around Moberly Lake.

Read More

Bipartisan support for forest restoration will save lives, support Jobs and improve water resources

By Tom Tidwell
The Hill
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States

Clean drinking water, wildfire safe communities, improved habitats for wildlife — just some of the benefits we all realize from sustained efforts to restore forests. Restoration hits home for all of us because it delivers benefits we want and need. Many people — at times even with seemingly different concerns — are willing to come together and work together because of shared interests in sustaining the benefits of forest restoration. Last year, the Forest Service continued to accelerate the pace of restoration, treating more than 4.6 million acres of land, an area larger than the state of New Jersey and a nine percent increase (400,000 acres) compared to 2011.

Read More

Forest health includes fighting fire with fire

The following is the latest in a series of articles on California water issues from experts convened by the UC Davis Policy Institute for Energy, Environment and the Economy
Capitol Weekly
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

California forests give us clean water, clean air, wildlife habitat, lumber and recreation. But they are threatened by a maelstrom of environmental drivers of change, which have intensified across four years of drought. Horrific recent events should inspire reform of not only wildfire management, but also of our overall forest-health stewardship and governance. We need a new vision for managing our wildlands with policies based on science and acting in the interest of the greatest public good.The incentives — and opportunities — for real progress have never been greater. Federal agencies, which manage 57 percent of California forests, have a new National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy. The US Forest Service is writing nearly 150 new fire plans.

Read More

Managing fuel provides more opportunity to allow landscape fire

The Missoulian
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

I read George Wuerthner’s Nov. 10 guest column on Tuesday with interest. I’ve visited with Wuerthner on a couple of occasions and while I find points of agreement, I also feel a need to tell more of the story. I agree that fire is a natural and needed part of many ecosystems ,and large fires as well as small fires have been a part of the system “since the morning stars sang together,” as Aldo Leopold so eloquently put it in his beautiful essay “Escudilla” about the last grizzly bear in Arizona. Like grizzly bears, wildfire needs room to roam. This, of course, presents a challenge to land managers that is becoming more complex as fire seasons increase in length and severity. As district ranger on the Bitterroot National Forest for 24 years of my nearly 40-year career with the Forest Service, I was fortunate to be in a position to decide whether a fire should be allowed to burn or to initiate suppression.

Read More

Budweiser is removing trees, and it’s a good thing

It might seem counterintuitive, but Anheuser-Busch and The Nature Conservancy are working together to protect a Colorado watershed by cutting down trees.
Mother Nature Network
November 20, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

On a recent trip to Fort Collins, Colorado, sponsored by Anheuser-Bush, I got to see what the 163-year-old Budweiser beer company is doing with regional watershed cleanup. Our group was transported from Fort Collins through a light fall snow to the Ben Delatour Scott Ranch for a look at the Cache la Poudre River watershed. We were an hour away from Anheuser-Busch’s Fort Collins brewery, and I was curious how the brewery, a Boy Scout ranch and forest management all fit together. There’s a strong link between forest health and a clean water supply. The biggest risk to the Poudre watershed is fire.

Read More

Public Lands Council Wants Endangered Species Act Reform

WNAX
November 20, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

The Public Lands Council wants Congress to reform the Endangered Species Act. Council Executive Director Ethan Lane says they’d like to see more local control, with state agencies taking a greater role in the regulation. He says recovery and delisting of species needs to be part of the rule rather than constantly listing various species. Lane says another major problem with the current Act is that there’s so much regulatory uncertainty. Lane attended a recent ESA workshop in Wyoming hosted by Governor Matt Mead, chairman of the Western Governor’s Association. Mead has made reform of the Act a main priority for the Governor’s group.

Read More

Forests threatened by federal proposal

Janet Torline, board member of Kootenai Environmental Alliance.
CDA Press
November 20, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

Did you know that you own almost 190 million acres of forest land across the United States? It’s true! This is the amount of land that has been placed in the public domain through our 155 National Forests. This is YOUR land and it is your right to say how it is managed. Those rights are now under threat of being severely limited via House Bill HR 2647, The Resilient Federal Forests Act. “Resilient Federal Forests” is misleading language that echoes other titles being employed by the US Forest Service (USFS) and its collaborative partners such as, “restoration” “fuels reduction” “forest health” and “collaboration.” All of these terms are merely runaway rhetoric that provides cover for what is really going on.

Read More

Leftover fuel ignited in massive Rim Fire burn scar

The Union Democrat
November 21, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

…Fire management crews in the Stanislaus National Forest hope to torch tons more unburned fuel from about 11,000 acres this winter season, weather permitting. The total burn area for the Rim Fire is more than 400 square miles. Forest fuels officer Rebecca Johnson says the fuel includes hazard trees and leftover timber cut by commercial contractors inside the Rim Fire perimeter. “We need to get fuels off the ground because there’s still fire danger out here,” Johnson said Friday morning near the divide separating the Tuolumne River and Clavey River watersheds. “And we need to burn to move forward with reforestation. Invasive species and brush have already started growing in most parts of the burn.”

Read More

Massive salvage logging under way at Colville after wildfires

The largest fire in history is undergoing one of the biggest logging operations ever on the Colville Reservation.
The Seattle Times
November 21, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

It’s a stickpin skyline: fire-blackened trees without leaves, needles or even branches as far as the eye can see. The quiet is deathly, until an 18-wheel logging truck roars out of the blackened woods. James Griffin hops out of the baby-blue cab of his logging rig painted with silver flames. He strides past the towering tires and throws his weight into tightening the chains on a full load of ponderosa pine logs, some 3 feet around, he is trucking out of the burn. First came the fire, now come the loggers. The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation are unleashing a salvage logging operation in an emergency cut to get what value the tribes still can from charred and blackened trees. It’s a logging blitz nearly military in scope and one of the biggest ever in Washington: as many as 120 log trucks hauling more than half a million board feet of timber a day.

Read More

Tongass National Forest management proposal up for public comment

Alaska Dispatch News
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

KETCHIKAN — The U.S. Forest Service is seeking feedback from the public on a proposal that could change how the Tongass National Forest is managed over the next 10 to 15 years. The proposed land and resource management plan and draft environmental impact statement includes several plans meant to simplify the transition from old-growth to young-growth timber, forest supervisor Earl Stewart told the Ketchikan Daily News. In a Nov. 16 letter to participants in the planning process, Stewart said that amending the 2008 Forest Plan “is needed to accelerate the transition to a young-growth forest management program, and to do so in a way that preserves a viable timber industry that provides jobs and opportunities for residents of Southeast Alaska.”

Read More

Feds plan $1 million on forest restoration in northern Idaho

Associated Press in the Idaho Statesman
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

BOISE, Idaho The U.S. Forest Service is spending just over $1 million in northern Idaho to shore up areas scorched this year by massive wildfires. The agency on Monday announced the plan for the Nez Perce-Clearwater National Forests aimed at stabilizing roads and trails, preventing erosion, keeping out invasive species and removing hazard trees. About 288 square miles of the forests burned due to nine wildfires. The agency says that’s the largest number of wildfires in any national forest this fire season. The fires started in early August and burned through September.

Read More

Kenai bark beetles primed for another run

News Miner
November 21, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

FAIRBANKS — Ed Berg has spent much of his life observing the natural happenings on a large peninsula (the Kenai) that juts from a larger peninsula (Alaska). The retired ecologist who worked many years for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has been around long enough he might see a second version of the most damaging insect attack in Alaska history. The insect is the spruce bark beetle. About the size of a grain of rice, billions of the black specks attacked spruce trees of the Kenai Peninsula during the 1990s. Their larvae girdled trees, cut off their sugar supply and slowly killed them. Three million acres of spruce trees died, including the ones on Berg’s property in Homer. After he and his wife Sara cleared the trees, their place didn’t feel the same. They moved. Berg needed to know why the beetles attacked with such vigor.

Read More

Chairman Murkowski Skeptical of Forest Service’s Tongass Young Growth Transition Plan

US Senate Committee
November 20, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

U.S. Sen. Lisa Murkowski, R-Alaska, today issued the following statement on the U.S. Forest Service’s release of proposed changes to the Tongass Land Management Plan. “I am still reviewing the plan to understand its full effect on Southeast’s economy, but at first glance it does not appear to anticipate sufficient timber harvest to make a transition to young growth timber economically feasible for the region’s remaining few sawmills. It seems premature to change the existing management plan to transition the away from old growth timber until there is better data to show that sufficient young growth will be available over time to make it economic for the industry to transition, and until there is a plan in place for how that transition can be financed.

Read More

Support a long-term forestry solution

Letter from Bjorn Dahl
Daily Camera
November 20, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

After another bad wildfire season, it’s time for Congress to restore the health of our federal forests through active, sustainable forest management. The House earlier this year passed H.R. 2647, known as the “Resilient Federal Forests Act” that gives the Forest Service policy and legal tools to implement more forest health projects. Reducing the risks of catastrophic wildfire will not only reduce wildfire suppression costs, it will help create good-paying jobs in many of our rural communities. Our senators should support H.R. 2647 or any other solution to put more people back to work thinning our forests.

Read More

Supervisors seek answers on Westside delay

The Westside Fire Recovery Project has been a major source of contention within Siskiyou County over the last year, and that contention continued this week.
The Siskiyou Daily News
November 20, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

The Westside Fire Recovery Project has been a major source of contention within Siskiyou County over the last year, and that contention continued this week. The Siskiyou County Board of Supervisors discussed the progress being made on the project. The project was created in an effort to mend damage caused by the severe 2014 wildfires that took place in the Happy Camp and Oak Knoll areas and the Salmon/Scott River Ranger District in the Klamath National Forest. One part of the project aims to recover salable wood while also encouraging a viable forest environment. At the same time, the project looks to discard and haul out dangerous timber fuels near homesites and maintain the safety of roads.

Read More

Another View: Salvage logging after wildfires is complicated but necessary

by Laurence Crabtree, forest supervisor for Eldorado National Forest.
The Sacramento Bee
November 21, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

Wildlife biologist Monica Bond missed the intent of salvage logging from the King fire restoration project in the op-ed “End destructive practice of logging forests after wildfires” (Viewpoints, Sept. 27). Severely burned forest habitat has an important place in the natural world, and the restoration project will leave more than 33,000 acres of this habitat untreated for species that thrive on dead trees and other plants that flourish after a wildfire. …Treating 11,000 acres of burned forest in the King fire area with salvage logging is complicated because these treatments have multiple objectives. Salvage logging will remove dead trees that threaten public and firefighter safety, create strategic fire management zones, prepare areas for reforestation and produce lumber for public consumption.

Read More

Specialty timber industry wins Tasmanian Government support, despite doubts over logging in UN-listed areas

ABC News Australia
November 24, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

The Tasmanian Government has assured specialty timber manufacturers it is “in their corner”, despite a plan to back away from logging in the World Heritage Area (WHA). UNESCO delegates are in the state this week assessing a proposal to log specialty species of timber in the WHA. The delegation has already spoken to State Government representatives, and to WHA logging opponents. If UNESCO does not support limited logging in the WHA, the Government said it would walk away from those provisions in the WHA draft management plan.

Read More

Hope redgum thinning trial will be underway in southern Riverina by Autumn 2016

ABC News Australia
November 23, 2015
Category: Forestry
Region: International

After a more than year long delay, there is hope a decision on whether an ecological thinning trial in the southern Riverina’s redgum forests, will be made early in 2016. The Victorian Government withdrew its support for the program last October, casting doubt over the trial along the Murray River. National Parks and Wildlife Service Senior Conservation Manager, Mick O’Flynn, said the scaled back trial now involves the thinning of 22 locations in the Murray Valley National Park, east of Deniliquin.

Read More

Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

Canadian Forest Products: Contributing to Climate Change Solutions

Canadian Climate Forum
November 24, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: Canada

Canada’s forests are remarkable for their size and diversity. Covering over three million square kilometres they range from the northern taiga forests of the territories to temperate forests of oak and maple in eastern Canada, and from the wet coastal rainforests of British Columbia to the pan-Canadian boreal forests stretching from Yukon to Newfoundland and Labrador. Sustainable management of our forests aims to respect the long term environmental health of ecosystems while providing employment, social and cultural benefits to Canadians. Among the many vital natural processes forests carry out, sequestering carbon from the atmosphere is increasingly important given the risks climate change poses to Canada and the rest of the world.

Read More

Report concludes US pellet exports no threat to southern forests

Biomass Magazine
November 23, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States

A report commissioned by the U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities, National Alliance of Forest Owners and U.S. Industrial Pellet Association, finds the U.S. export of industrial wood pellets to meet renewable energy goals in the European Union does not pose a threat to the sustainability of southern U.S. forests. The report was conducted by independent forest analysts and economists using U.S. government and marketplace data. Due to the recent advent of the export pellet mill marketplace, some question the impact these mills are having on pine and hardwood pulpwood forest inventory and wood fiber prices in the U.S. South. The report’s data finds that these impacts are minimal and that export pellet demand in and of itself does not drive price changes.

Read More

Europe’s biomass boom is destroying America’s forests

Digital Journal
November 23, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States, International

European Union’s stringent renewable energy requirements are forcing coal-based power plants to use biomass fuel. Swaths of woodlands in Southeastern United States are being cut down to fuel the biomass boom across the Atlantic. A new report by the Natural Resources Defense Council has pointed out that 15 million acres of unprotected forests in the Southeastern United States, home to more than 600 imperiled, threatened or endangered species are at risk due to booming wood exports EU and UK. Additionally, pollution from logging has put more than 18,000 miles of impaired freshwater rivers and streams at new risk. Debbie Hammel, the director of the Land Markets Initiative at NRDC says that Europe must cut down the subsidies for biomass based power plants to save forests in the United States.

Read More

Industry Challenges Lead to Change, Growth

There will be additional modifications in the wood pellet industry as ridiculously low oil prices continue. We are fortunate for our system in which stress creates change and then growth.
Biomass Magazine
November 23, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: US East, United States

The low price of oil is clearly and severely impacting the sale of pellet heating equipment in our state. Efficiency Maine, which at one time was reporting installs of 30 incentivized pellet boiler systems per month, now reports 7 units installed in July, 3 in August, a bump up to 13 in September, but a leveling out thereafter. In addition, at least several of Maine’s four pellet manufacturers report cancelled orders for bagged pellets. And yet… Maine Energy Systems, founded and funded by well-known entrepreneur Les Otten, reports encouraging sales of its Okefen pellet boilers in other Northeastern states where state incentives are becoming better established. The firm also reports that the public is increasingly looking at the environmental impact of fossil fuels as reason for switching to wood.

Read More

Exposing a small part of a forest to the ‘threatening’ heat of 2100

Environment & Energy Publishing
November 23, 2015
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: International

EL YUNQUE RAINFOREST, Puerto Rico — Yellow cables marked “danger” carry 480 volts of electricity through the rainforest. The cables reach into a circular metal scaffold that holds six large space heaters. …Tana Wood [a biologist with the Forest Service], 40, is responsible for the daily operations of this first-of-its-kind experiment, where scientists are cranking up the heat by 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (4 degrees Celsius) to see what happens to the saplings of palm and tabonuco and small plants growing here. This is as hot as our planet may be in 2100 if nations emit carbon dioxide at present-day rates. The scientists want to see whether tropical forests will thrive in that changed world.

Read More