Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: August 25, 2016

Business & Politics

Lumber value declines in North America

From Wood Resources International
Times Standard
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

The value of logs and lumber exported from North America to Asia fell by 33% from 2013 to 2015, with the 2016 export value on pace to reach the lowest level since 2010, according to the Wood Resource Quarterly. The major wood products exports from the US Northwest (logs) and British Columbia (lumber) to Asia have fallen in value by 18% during the first half of 2016, reports the Wood Resource Quarterly. The biggest decline has been of softwood lumber from BC to China, which is on pace to be down by 50% in 2016 as compared to 2014. 

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Lumber Trade War Brewing as Hope of New Canada-U.S. Deal Fades

By Josh Wingrove and Erik Hertzberg
Bloomberg Markets
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

A trade dispute between the U.S. and Canada over softwood lumber is escalating, raising the specter of higher tariffs as officials downplay the likelihood of reaching a deal before an October deadline. President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau directed their governments at a June meeting in Ottawa to push forward and reach accord on the issue, long a thorn in relations, while acknowledging “significant differences” remain. Officials began two days of talks in Washington on Wednesday, the fourth round of negotiations since the leaders met. Optimism is fading. Canada’s Ambassador to the U.S., David MacNaughton, and the country’s chief softwood lumber negotiator, Martin Moen, have each said this month the sides remain far apart. 

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Report details Canada’s advanced biofuel, wood pellet markets

By Anna Simet
Biomass Magazine
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada

The USDA Foreign Agricultural Service recently released a Global Agricultural Information Network report on the Canadian renewable fuel industry, which reviews the country’s renewable fuel mandates/policy and progress toward meeting them, as well as biofuel and wood pellet market development, imports and exports. Canada’s federal mandate currently requires 5 percent of the national gasoline pool to be renewable (ethanol) and 2 percent renewable content in diesel fuel. In addition, many provinces have their own renewable mandates, some similar and some more ambitious, and some that extend beyond liquid renewable fuel, such as phasing out coal.

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Deere sales drop amid tough conditions in construction, forestry equipment markets

Daily Commercial News
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

MOLINE, ILL. – Illinois-based equipment manufacturer Deere and Company, which sells John Deere construction equipment among other products, announced a drop-off in sales for its third quarter worldwide in its third-quarter earnings summary. Deere sales drop amid tough conditions in construction, forestry equipment markets. Construction and forestry sales decreased 24 per cent for the quarter and 21 per cent for nine months mainly as a result of lower shipment volumes for the quarter ending July 31, according to a statement.

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Millions in taxpayer dollars spent over decades couldn’t save The Pas sawmill

CBC News
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Since the very beginning, the biggest employer in The Pas, Man., has had difficulty turning a profit. But the latest blow could be the final strike that fells the sawmill for good… The Pas’s sawmill was born out of a desire to tap the resources of Manitoba’s boreal forest. Strong, healthy trees surround The Pas and their pulp makes excellent paper products. What started as a desire to spur the economy in northern Manitoba led to the disappearance of millions of dollars disappearing into a company that didn’t deliver on its promises, with the provincial government pursuing an Austrian businessman behind the deal for years in an attempt to recoup its funds.

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Manitoba can’t do much to save Tolko mill in The Pas, premier says

CBC News
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Manitoba Premier Brian Pallister says there’s not much his government can do to help the 332 people who will lose their jobs when Tolko Industries shuts down its sawmill in The Pas at the end of this year. The province has had discussions with Tolko officials, but ultimately it’s up to the company to make its own decisions, Pallister said Wednesday. “Certainly we made every effort to have dialogue with the people at Tolko and to do what we could to assist them and their decisions. But their decision ultimately is as was announced, so we have to accept that. It’s their company, after all,” he said. Pallister wouldn’t give details about the government’s talks with Tolko or what kind of support was offered.

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Wildfire keeps bad news coming for ailing Alberta economy

By Chris Varcoe
Calgary Herald
August 24, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Take a feeble economy, rising job losses and plunging private-sector investment. Mix in a natural disaster of epic scale. Stir. Welcome to Alberta’s stormy economy in the summer of 2016. The brutal impact of the Fort McMurray wildfires was on full display Tuesday as the Notley government released financial results for its first quarter of 2016. The April-to-June scorecard showed a growing budget deficit, now projected at a record $10.9 billion this fiscal year, up about half-a-billion bucks since the April budget. …The massive reconstruction effort needed in the Wood Buffalo area — almost 1,600 structures were destroyed — will create work over the next few years. For example, the effort to rebuild homes damaged by the blaze will cost more than $1 billion alone.

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Paper mill promises to meet ‘regulatory obligations’ as it winds down operation in The Pas

By Marc Gallant
Winnipeg Free Press
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

A spokesperson for Tolko Industries promised that the company will meet all environmental responsibilities as it ceases operating its pulp-and-paper mill operation in The Pas in early December. “We are commited to meeting all our regulatory obligations,” said Janice Lockyer, Tolko’s communications advisor, told the Free Press on Wednesday. “We’re going to be there for a long time yet. This process of closure is not an immediate thing.” Tolko announced earlier this week that the mill would shut on Dec. 2, laying off 332 employees, a significant loss of good-paying jobs in a community of 5,500.

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Resolute Sponsors World Champion Speed Skater Marianne St-Gelais

By Resolute Forest Products Inc.
CNW in Edmonton Journal
August 24, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada

MONTRÉAL – Resolute Forest Products Inc. today announced a partnership from 2016 through 2019 with Marianne St-Gelais, world champion and winner of three Olympic medals in short track speed skating. “This partnership reflects Resolute’s values and our involvement in local communities,” stated Resolute President and Chief Executive Officer Richard Garneau during a press conference in Saint-Félicien (Quebec) that was attended by dignitaries, St-Gelais’ family and Resolute employees. A native of Saint-Félicien, located in the Lac-Saint-Jean region, Marianne St-Gelais grew up in a family of foresters. With the support of her family and her community, she quickly excelled at her sport.

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Roseburg Forest Products union workers rally for ‘fair and just contract’

By Ashley Honea
KPIC News
August 25, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States, US West

DILLARD, Ore. — Union workers at Roseburg Forest Products are rallying for what they call “a fair contract.” Workers filed out of the RFP facility and stood together in unity Tuesday outside RFP’s Dillard location. “We’re not really fighting; this is kind of a unity deal to just show the company that we’re serious,” said Local 2949 vice president Randy Farmer. Those rallying say they’re serious about negotiations for the company’s next four-year contract with its workers. “We just want a fair and just contract that everybody can live with and prosper with”.

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Canadian lumber giant moving US headquarters to Mobile

By Jason Johnson
Lagniappe Weekly
August 24, 2016
Category: Business & Politics
Region: US East, Canada, United States, Canada West

A forest products company with subsidiaries connected to Mayor Sandy Stimpson is receiving $600,000 in incentives to relocate its United States headquarters from Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, to Mobile in the coming months. Canfor Southern Pine Inc., a subsidiary of Canada-based Canfor Corp., began acquiring privately owned lumber companies throughout the South in 2006 and by 2013 had made its way to Gulf Lumber Co. Inc. in Mobile, which is run by Stimpson’s family. Since the acquisition, Gulf Lumber has become part of Canfor Southern Pine’s U.S. operations, which include 11 sawmills, four manufacturing plants, chip mills and a trucking firm operating in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina and South Carolina.

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Wood, Paper & Green Building

2016 Wood Design & Building Awards call for projects

Canadian Wood Council
Canadian Wood Council
August 25, 2016
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada

Are you, or someone you know, involved in a project that embodies the essence of innovative wood design? Enter our 2016 Awards program for your chance to have your project(s) featured in various conferences, press releases, and highlighted in the Wood Design & Building award winning and popularly circulated awards book and magazine. A hand-selected jury of prominent architects from Canada and the USA review each submission and choose the award winners based on considerations such as creativity, distinctive and appropriate use of wood materials, ability to satisfy clients’ building and site requirements, and overall aesthetic appeal for the use and application of wood.

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Green Building Awards celebrate environmental excellence

By Warren Frey
Daily Commercial News
August 24, 2016
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada

Winners of the ninth annual Canadian Green Building Awards have been announced in celebration of several structures across Canada that combine a high level of environmentally conscious design with innovative building practices. “The whole point of the program is to promote sustainable, high-performance buildings amongst building owners, designers and contractors, and to show them where building design can go,” said Sustainable Architecture and Building Magazine (SABMag) publisher and awards organizer Don Griffith. A number of Toronto projects won top honours in this year’s pool of projects.

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Kelowna pushing for larger family-friendly rental units with changes to grant program

By John McDonald
InfoTel News Ltd
August 24, 2016
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

KELOWNA – The city is pretty happy about the over 1,000 rental units now in different stages of development around the city, thanks to various incentive programs. Acting policy manager James Moore says that success masks a weakness in the number of so-called family friendly rental units — three or four bedrooms — where the vacancy rate in the Central Okanagan for that specific size of unit is almost zero. Moore says fewer than 50 of those units fall into that category so staff are proposing to nudge the rental housing grant program toward family-friendly units. … For years 4.5 storeys was the limit prescribed by the B.C. Building Code but that changed a couple of years ago, Moore says. “Now you can build an affordable wood frame building up to six storeys,” he adds. “However we are very conscious of the impact of height and
there will be height setbacks.”

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Blocks – The ABCs of Green Building Materials

Aisha Abdelhamid
Green Building Elements
August 24, 2016
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: United States

…Global warming is one of the major reasons why alternative blocks are appearing on the construction market. Cement manufacturing pumps around six billion tons of CO2 into the atmosphere every year. Sixty percent of emissions are due to transforming limestone, and the other 40 percent comes from using fossil fuels to heat the cement kilns to 2,732 degrees F (1500°C). Recycled fly ash, considered a “green” alternative to cement, is used to replace 15-30 percent of the cement in concrete. Yes, it is a recycled by-product, but it comes from coal combustion, clearly on the top of pollution-producing, non-green practices. Finding a truly “green” alternative to cement is the new Holy Grail of building R&D efforts all over the world.

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Sandy Springs Bans Use of Wood In Buildings Taller Than 3 Stories

By Kristal Dixon
Sandy Springs Patch
August 25, 2016
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: US East, United States

SANDY SPRINGS, GA — The city of Sandy Springs formally took a step last week to crack down on so-called “stick-built” residential dwellings. The City Council voted to amend its building to code to require any building or structure more than three stories and exceeding 100,000 square feet gross floor area are made of noncombustible materials such as steel or concrete. While the change went into effect at the Aug. 16 meeting, it won’t apply to projects with active land disturbance permits “provided that any such project apply for a building permit no later than February 16, 2017,” city documents note. The city’s previous code allowed for wood framing in structures up to four stories — or five if those buildings had fire sprinklers.

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Victorian manufacturing boost as 13 firms share in Commonweath grants worth $16m

By Rob Harris
Herald Sun Australia
August 24, 2016
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: International

THIRTEEN Victorian firms will today share in $16 million of Commonwealth grants to boost their high value manufacturing capability. …Xlam Australia, in Wodonga, will gain $2 million for its $18 million project to establish Australia’s first cross laminated timber manufacturing facility, producing an engineered wood product capable of replacing concrete in building structures. The funding will complement massive private investment of $104.5 million from the firms resulting in a $136 million injection to the manufacturing sector across both states, creating over 500 jobs. …“These grants will support businesses to invest in their future by
developing innovative new processes and cutting-edge equipment,” he
said.

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Forestry

New guide helps builders tackle resource roads

By Korky Koroluk
Daily Commercial News
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada

A new national field guide published recently is designed to help roadbuilders construct roads across wetlands in Canada’s boreal forest. It could also serve as an introductory lesson for anyone wanting a better understanding of wetlands and why they’re important. Resource Roads and Wetlands: A Guide for Planning, Construction and Maintenance is a compilation of best practices and its production was spearheaded by two non-profit organizations: FPInnovations and Ducks Unlimited Canada. The central purpose of the guide is to foster a better understanding of the nature of individual wetlands. And while it is aimed at the forestry sector, Glen Legere says a lot of the recommendations can also apply to mining and oil and gas organizations.

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B.C’s tree-planting strategy ‘totally legitimate’: Expert

By Matt Kieltyka 
Vancouver Metro
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The science behind the major piece of British Columbia’s new climate plan – plant more trees – is “totally legitimate” despite criticism from environmentalists, according to a leading expert. By rehabilitating hundreds of thousands of hectares of forest impacted by wildfire and Mountain Pine Beetle, B.C. says it can cut annual greenhouse gas emissions by up to 11.7 million tonnes by 2050. The strategy is biggest source of emission reductions forecast in the new Climate Leadership Plan, which aims to cut emissions by 25 million tonnes annually by 2050, but it has come under scrutiny. “We don’t calculate into our emissions lost carbon sinks due to forestry. If we’re going to start counting the trees we’re planting, we have to start counting the trees that we’re logging,” said Stand (formerly ForestEthics) B.C. campaigner Sven Biggs.

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BC modernizes moose management with moose tracker app

By Shannon Waters
My Prince George Now
August 24, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The Ministry of Forests and the BC Wildlife Federation are bringing the province’s wildlife management strategy into the 21st century with an app for mapping moose populations. The BC Moose Tracker app will allow members of the public to upload information – including number, sex and location – of moose they encounter in the wild. The information will be sent directly to an online database. Data collected will help wildlife biologists develop management strategies and identify emerging trends in BC’s moose population.

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Woman sprayed with herbicide while out riding horse

By Mark Nielsen
Prince George Citizen
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

A Buckhorn woman is raising alarm bells after a helicopter sprayed herbicide on her while she was out riding her horse in the area on Saturday night… “It wasn’t like I was drenched in this stuff or anything but I came back home and showered,” Andrysiak said. Canfor officials met on Wednesday with Andrysiak and the neighbour who found the notice… The measures include a bigger effort to let residents know when spraying is occurring by not only posting notices at better locations along the roadsides but in the area’s general stores and in the community newsletter.

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Growing consensus: forestry in B.C. needs to change

By Daniel Pierce
Vancouver Observer
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

If there is one thing I have learned from the past four years of producing my new documentary series Heartwood: A West Coast Forestry Documentree, it is that there is no shortage of people who all agree that B.C.’s forest sector is in desperate need of some new ideas – particularly on the coast. I have gone sailing with tourism operators in the Discovery Islands, whose clients are complaining of hideous scars on the hillsides of busy tourism corridors… I have driven in pick-up trucks with disillusioned loggers, who are fed up with the contracting out of falling jobs by the major timber companies… I have marched in the streets with out of work pulp and paper workers, who are tired of seeing their jobs exported overseas. 

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New-look Springboard Park in Salmo reopens to the public

The Castlegar Source
August 24, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Salmo Council and staff gathered for a ribbon-cutting Wednesday morning to formally reopen Springboard Park, a 17-plus acre natural forest area owned and maintained by the Village. The opening comes after work was completed by staff over a four-month period to enhance the public safety and use of the trail by clearing it of danger trees and debris. “Springboard Park is one of Salmo’s most valuable natural assets,” said Salmo Mayor Stephen White in a media release.

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Wilderness group wants Tolko logging roads shut down when Manitoba mill closes

Canadian Press in the Journal of Commerce
August 24, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

THE PAS, Man. – An environmental group wants logging roads that were built by a forest products company in northern Manitoba shut down when its plant closes. Tolko Industries has announced that the mill near the town of The Pas will close on Dec. 2, putting 332 employees out of work. The Manitoba chapter of The Wilderness Committee says logging roads will continue to disrupt Grass River Provincial Park, woodland caribou and northern forests unless the company is required to decommission them. …It says leaving the roads in place will make it easy for wolves to prey on moose and woodland caribou, as well as provide access for humans into forests that should be off-limits.

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Forestry Failure

August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada East, Canada

Richard Freeman’s claim that the McNeil government’s abandonment of the commitment to reduce clearcutting represents “world-class forest management” is ludicrous. Does he really believe that by cutting down every last piece of standing ‘timber’ we can achieve “ecological forestry”? As the head of Nova Scotia’s largest sawmill, he must realize that the decision is a desperate attempt to keep alive companies like his. Our forests have been over-harvested for years.

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Forestry Failure

August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada East, Canada

Richard Freeman’s claim that the McNeil government’s abandonment of the commitment to reduce clearcutting represents “world-class forest management” is ludicrous. Does he really believe that by cutting down every last piece of standing ‘timber’ we can achieve “ecological forestry”? As the head of Nova Scotia’s largest sawmill, he must realize that the decision is a desperate attempt to keep alive companies like his. Our forests have been over-harvested for years.

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Historian Lincoln Bramwell on the History of the US Forest Service

US Forest Service
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: United States

Lincoln Bramwell, historian for the Forest Service, gives a short overview on the history of the Forest Service, specifically in relation to cultural transformation. Federal forest management dates back to 1876 when Congress created the office of Special Agent in the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. In 1881 the Department expanded the office into the Division of Forestry. [4 min VIDEO]

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Oregon Department of Forestry responsibilities increase, staffing remains limited

KVAL News
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

VENETA, Ore. – Three years of large, out-of-control fires are costing Oregon taxpayers extra money, according to a new state report released Tuesday. The report outlines how the wildfires caused the workload to increase, however, staffing has stayed the same. Oregon Department of Forestry leaders based in Veneta said the report hopefully means help is on the way. “Stretched thin” – that’s how the secretary of state describes the Oregon Department of forestry in a new “performance audit.” 

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Advocates say they’ll sue to protect hundreds of species

Associated Press in The Missoulian
August 24, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

BILLINGS  — A wildlife advocacy group has filed notice that it intends to sue the U.S. government for failing to act on petitions to protect more than 400 plants and animals under the Endangered Species Act. The Center for Biological Diversity accuses the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of leaving hundreds of species in limbo. It says the Florida sandhill crane, white tailed ptarmigan and eastern diamondback rattlesnake are among those species awaiting a government decision.

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In Maine, Land From Burt’s Bees Co-Founder Is Declared A National Monument

By Camila Domonoske
Oregon Public Broadcasting
August 24, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

In Maine’s North Woods, forests and rivers that used to feed paper mills will now be permanently protected as a national monument — thanks to a donation by the co-founder of Burt’s Bees. President Obama announced the creation of the Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument on Wednesday, just one day before the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service. But the designation of the woods as protected territory has been in the works for years — and has been controversial among locals, who worried about federal oversight of lands that used to be central to the regional economy.

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Here’s my advice for how Maine can take on the challenges facing forest industries

By Lloyd Irland, Industry Consultant
Bangor Daily News
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

The forest industries in Maine and the Northeast have faced unprecedented challenges. Paper mill shutdowns have occurred that would not normally accompany a national economic recovery. Last week, a federal Economic Development Assessment Team visited Maine. If they were to ask my advice, here are some things I’d ask them to consider. Over decades, our view has been far too narrow, built on the assumption that there is something exceptional about wood products manufacturing. I call this “wood products exceptionalism.” It is hurting us. Making things out of solid wood, of course, uses different materials and machines, but many generic issues, such as “just in time” and lean manufacturing, apply widely. 

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Obama creates new national monument in Maine

By Timothy Cama
The Hill.com
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, Canada East, United States

President Obama Wednesday created a new national monument in Maine, protecting about 87,500 acres in the state’s North Woods. The area of the monument, dubbed Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument, was donated Tuesday to the federal government by businesswoman Roxanne Quimby, the co-founder of Burt’s Bees, a brand of personal care products. It protects the area indefinitely from various kinds of development, such as logging… Opponents argue that the move will bring unwanted federal control to the rural area that used to house numerous paper mills. Their objections include the expectation that the federal government will close off access to recreation and snowmobiling.

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Forest and watercourse interplay important for restorations

Eureka Alert
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: International

Humans utilise forests and watercourses in a way that depletes ecosystem habitats, biodiversity and ecosystem services. Many areas are restored to break the trend, but to succeed you need to consider not only the ecosystem in mind, but also surrounding ecosystems… “Despite evident correlations between land and water ecosystems, forests and watercourses are nearly always restored separately in small-scale projects. When a forest ecosystem abounding in water has been depleted, it can be a struggle to retain its original status by restoring only one part of it. Instead, both land and aquatic environments need to be integrated in the restoration,” says Christer Nilsson, Professor at the Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences at Umeå University.

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Rare Aboriginal ‘scar tree’ discovered on Hunter Valley farm

By Robert Virtue
ABC News Australia
August 25, 2016
Category: Forestry
Region: International

A rare tree showing two large ‘scars’, believed to have been cut by Aboriginal people more than 100 years ago, has been discovered on a farm in the News South Wales Hunter Valley town of Vacy. The tree, a grey box eucalypt, is believed to date to the 19th century, and is one of three of that age known in the region. Aboriginal people in the Paterson River area cut the tree’s bark to make canoes. The trees are now considered rare because of the effect of land clearing and bushfires, which have reduced the numbers of remaining scar trees.

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Forest Fires

Cleveland Ridge fire hits 635 acres

By Ryan Pfeil
Mail Tribune
August 24, 2016
Category: Forest Fires
Region: United States, US West

A wildfire burning about five miles north of Shady Cove pumped the brakes overnight, seeing new growth of only about 60 acres. Oregon Department of Forestry officials said the Cleveland Ridge fire, which is burning on a mix of private and Bureau of Land Management lands, had grown to about 635 acres by Wednesday morning. On Tuesday evening, ODF crews estimated the fire, which they now believe to be human-caused, was 575 acres. “We’re seeing significant slowing,” ODF spokesman Brian Ballou said. Despite that, the southeastern portion of the blaze had already crept close to about 40 homes, which are located about a mile away.

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Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

BC’s Forest Sector Welcomes Provincial Climate Leadership Plan

By Council of Forest Industries
Council of Forest Industries
August 19, 2016
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: Canada, Canada West

Vancouver, BC – The Council of Forest Industries (COFI) welcomed today’s announcement of the BC Climate Leadership Plan, which includes a new Forest Carbon Initiative and a continued commitment to encourage the use of B.C. wood products to meet provincial climate targets. “The new Forest Carbon Initiative will rehabilitate and replant up to 300,000 hectares of Mountain Pine Beetle and wildfire impacted public lands,” said Susan Yurkovich, President and CEO of the Council of Forest Industries. “This initiative will augment the work that industry undertakes to reforest every hectare of land that is harvested.” “British Columbia’s sustainably managed forest industry is part of the solution to tackling climate change,” said Yurkovich.

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General

Booming wood pellet production inching toward watershed forests

By Jeff Day
Bay Journal
August 25, 2016
Category: Uncategorised

A growing industry that’s harvesting “woody biomass” from forests for energy generation could gain a toehold soon in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Like virtually every other form of energy, it’s also generating intense debate about its environmental impact… The big demand for pellets made from woody biomass, though, comes from utilities in Europe and the United Kingdom that are trying to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels. This is driving the harvesting of low-value trees and “slash,” or debris left by logging, in the Southeastern United States, from just south of the Bay watershed to the state of Mississippi.

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