Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: July 18, 2019

Today’s Takeaway

Home builders and lumber stocks get reality check

Tree Frog Forestry News
July 18, 2019
Category: Today's Takeaway

US home builder stocks follow lumber producers down as sagging housing news takes its toll. In related news: US lumber is up while Canadian production is down; Fort St. James declares financial crisis due to mill closures; Canfor looks to repurpose its shuttered Vavenby sawmill; and a labour ruling has some Western Forest Products contractors heading back to work. 

In Forestry/Climate news: BC takes action on threatened old-growth, protects 54 groves with iconic trees—including the Big Lonely Doug; Canada invests in First Nations conservation and in forest-based solutions to plastic waste; researchers take stock of Canada’s urban forests; and BC builds the case for more mass timber construction.

Finally, gaps in wildfire science leave Canadian researchers fighting blind.

Kelly McCloskey, Tree Frog Editor

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Business & Politics

Rising softwood lumber production for U.S. sawmills, while Canadian output drops sharply

Global Wood Markets Info
July 18, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

Softwood lumber production by U.S. sawmills in the first four months of 2019 was 11.718 billion board ft. (bbf), an increase of 0.9% from 11.616 bbf a year earlier, while Canadian sawmills produced 8.588 bbf of softwood lumber in the first four months, down 8.8% from 9.421 bbf a year earlier. Western U.S. sawmills accounted for 4.797 bbf of the four-month total, down 1.8% from 4.883 bbf a year earlier, while production at southern U.S. sawmills increased, by 3.0% to 6.370 bbf from 6.186 bbf last year. …Canadian sawmills produced 8.588 bbf of softwood lumber in the first four months, down 8.8% from 9.421 bbf a year earlier. Much of the decline was in British Columbia, where output plunged 16.2% to 3.587 bbf from 4.279 at the same time last year. Production by sawmills East of the Rockies also fell, by 2.7% to 5.001 bbf from 5.142 bbf.

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Home Builders Get a Reality Check

By Gunjan Banerji
The Wall Street Journal
July 17, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

Shares of home builders have been on a tear this year. But fresh housing data could hold them back. Home building in the U.S. declined in June, potentially putting a halt to an epic rally. …Big, publicly traded home builders… have soared this year, outpacing the S&P 500’s roughly 19% gain. …But several home builders inched lower on Wednesday after fresh data from the Commerce Department showed that housing starts fell 0.9% in June from the prior month. Meanwhile, residential building permits recorded the biggest monthly drop since March 2016. …Lower borrowing costs could help the housing market; rates for 30-year fixed mortgages recently fell below 4%. …But a continuation of sagging housing data could put an end to the rally, potentially weighing on other sectors. …These types of companies, which include Canfor, Interfor andWest Fraser, have fallen at least 15% each this year. [a WSJ subscription is required to access the full story]

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Fort St. James declares financial crisis following sawmill closure

By Estefania Duran
CBC News
July 17, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

A northern B.C. community has declared a state of local financial crisis after the district’s sawmill was sold last month. The declaration for the District of Fort St. James was ordered by the mayor Tuesday night and will remain in force for 30 days unless ordered otherwise.  The sawmill closed after Conifex decided to sell the facility to Hampton Lumber, a decision that Mayor Bev Playfair says left 226 people unemployed. … Playfair says the closure affects more than just the workers, noting there is a “trickle down” effect felt by the rest of the community. She’s hopeful the declaration will result in the creation of job opportunity programs by the federal and provincial governments to prevent workers from leaving. Although a declaration of financial crisis is a first for the district, Playfair says the community is not new to mill closures, with this being the third time the facility has closed. 

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BC Human Rights Tribunal awards damages to former forestry worker

By Marcella Bernardo
News 1130
July 17, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

VANCOUVER – A forestry worker who was denied a job with the B.C. government four years ago has won a discrimination case at the BC Human Rights Tribunal. Bryan Fraser has been awarded $25,000 after he says he was discriminated against because of his political beliefs about logging on Haida Gwaii. In 2015, Fraser received an offer of employment after spending time out of the province. However, the employment offer was rescinded after the Ministry of Forests learned he had previously harvested trees that were considered culturally important. Fraser had worked on Haida Gwaii in the 1990s and 2000s. The Ministry argued Fraser had failed to report he was under investigation by the Forest Practices Board. In awarding compensation, tribunal member Catherine McCreary says Fraser should not be re-instated, but he should be compensated for a loss of dignity by the hiring process.

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More than One Hundred Employees Returning to Work, Western Forest Products says

By Kyle Christensen
My Cowichan Valley Now
July 17, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Amid the labour dispute between Western Forest Products and members of the United Steelworkers Local 1-1937, more than one hundred WFP contractors are heading back to work this week. The Labour Relations Board has decided that the union didn’t collectively bargain legally when it comes to Mount Sicker Timber Company Limited, Island Forest Company Limited, and Big Lake Logging Limited, voiding the strike vote. …Susan Dolinski explains… “the union didn’t appropriately …providing 72-hour strike notice to these contractors and including them in the strike vote in a way that was appropriate”. Dolinski said these workers will be back on the job this week.

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Canfor looking at possible repurposing of Vavenby sawmill site

BC Local News
July 18, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

At a meeting earlier this month there was speculation on the fate Canfor’s Vavenby mill site. …“there isn’t sufficient fiber supply to support a sawmill there, the site will not operate as a sawmill again. However, we do believe there are other potential industrial uses for the site,” said Stephen Mackie, senior vice-president of Canadian operations for Canfor. Taking into account the network of transportation infrastructure at the site, and the access to skilled labor in the area, there is potential for other industries that could create jobs there. …For the time being, Canfor is looking at short-term uses that might create local employment and economic benefits, like using the site for pipeline construction storage, possibly setting up a chipping facility, or using the scales in the log yard to weigh and store logs.

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M’sia’s furniture exports to US jump amid trade war

By Sulhi Khalid
The Malaysian Reserve
July 18, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International

THE country’s furniture exports to the US jumped 20.8% to RM1.55 billion in the first five months of 2019, as American buyers shifting their orders to South-East Asian countries due to the ongoing US-China trade war. Malaysia External Trade Development Corp CEO said furniture exports saw an increase of 9.6% to RM4.14 billion, compared to the corresponding period last year. The main exports of Malaysian furniture include wooden bedroom furniture, chairs with wooden frames, office furniture and kitchen furniture. He also urged the industry players to explore the possibilities of transitioning from original equipment manufacturing, to original design manufacturing or original brand manufacturing, as the country has a strong pool of furniture exporters with a niche in manufacturing. …“The furniture industry has also been recognised as one of the main industries capable to drive the transformation of the manufacturing industry into one that champions Industrial 4.0,” he added.

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Wood, Paper & Green Building

Canadians Developing Innovative Solutions to Plastic Waste

By Natural Resources Canada
Cision Newswire
July 18, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada

OTTAWA – Reducing plastic pollution is an international imperative that is important to Canadians and people around the world. As part of its climate change commitments, the Government of Canada is collaborating with small businesses to reduce pollution and help create a greener, more sustainable environment for everyone. The Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, Canada’s Minister of Natural Resources, today announced a $300,000 investment in the first phase of a Bioplastics Challenge aimed at helping small businesses reduce pollution by turning forest-based residue into sustainable domestic plastic material. The investment will be split equally between …(1) Bosk Bioproducts Inc., based in Quebec City, is developing a highly compostable and cost-effective bioplastic made from paper mill sludge and wood fibre residue that is compatible with plastic manufacturers’ existing equipment, and (2) GCUP — Technology Corp., based in Vancouver, is developing a completely plant-based and compostable single-use coffee pod from bioplastic and wood fibre.

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Building the case for more mass timber construction

By Rolando Hinojosa
Business in Vancouver
July 17, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

Faced with the challenge of diminished lumber supply and lower prices, the British Columbia government has made investing in higher-value-added products like engineered wood a priority, betting that supporting mass timber construction can be a winning proposition for the industry. “For too long the focus has been on maximizing volume but not value, and so we want to flip that on its ear,” said Doug Donaldson, minister of forests… During 2019’s first half, the B.C. government announced a number of measures aimed at supporting the increased production of engineered wood products for the construction industry, with a particular focus on building taller mass timber structures. …“I’m a veteran in the wood products industry, and I can tell you that this mass timber revolution is something that I have never witnessed before,” said Structurlam CEO Hardy Wentzel. …Mass timber’s potential has also attracted the attention of WestKootenays-based Kalesnikoff Lumber. 

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World’s First Fully Automated Cedar Shingle Factory Coming to Clair, New Brunswick

By Natural Resources Canada
Government of Canada
July 18, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada East, Canada

CLAIR, NEW BRUNSWICK – Investments in wood innovation have the potential to grow the economy, tackle climate change and create jobs in rural and remote communities.  René Arseneault, MP for Madawaska–Restigouche, on behalf of the Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, announced a $2.4-million investment to help build the world’s first fully automated cedar shingle facility. The funding will enable shingle manufacturer Waska to employ the novel use of lasers, sensors and advanced algorithms, which are a set of computer-generated instructions typically used to perform problem-solving operations in production. …Provided through NRCan’s Investments in Forest Industry Transformation program, this investment will sustain over 90 jobs. …Waska is a division of Clair Industrial Development Corporation Ltd., has been in operation for 50 years.

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Forestry

Gaps in wildfire science leave Canadian researchers fighting blind against growing risks

By Jeff Lewis
The Globe and Mail
July 18, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada

…Some of the tens of millions of dollars Alberta spent on wildfire prevention in 2016 helped fund efforts to thin trees around the city, plant less-combustible hardwoods and clear brush from homes, according to a postincident report. Such precautions are in use across Canada, yet they are based primarily on technical guidelines developed in the United States; few have been validated by scientists to gauge how effective they are in northern, boreal forests. “What that means is that people really don’t know, because it hasn’t been done,” said Brian Stocks, a wildfire-science specialist and one of several investigators hired to assess the Fort McMurray blaze for the Alberta government. That knowledge gap is just one of a growing number of blind spots that scientists say jeopardize millions of people and billions of dollars of infrastructure as more intense and frequent wildfires chew through larger tracts of Canada’s forests each year.

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Canada invests $6.4 million to support First Nations leadership in conservation

By Environment and Climate Change Canada
Cision Newswire
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada

OTTAWA – Indigenous Peoples have a special relationship with the environment. They have cared for the land, water, ice, plants, and animals for millennia. The federal government is working with First Nations conservation leaders and knowledge keepers to support First Nations as they honour and fulfill their cultural responsibilities to the land. Supporting Indigenous leadership in conservation is an important part of advancing reconciliation, and it helps communities manage their ancestral lands in accordance with their traditional laws and values. The Government of Canada is investing $6.4 million in 22 First Nations-led projects through the Indigenous Guardians Pilot Program. These projects will enable First Nations to take action to protect clean air and clean water, fight climate change, and help protect a healthy environment for all. By working together, we are forming true nation-to-nation partnerships between First Nations and the Government of Canada.

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Toad migration could close parts of Whistler park, officials say

CBC News
July 18, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The Resort Municipality of Whistler is warning residents and visitors about possible upcoming closures around Lost Lake Park as thousands of Western toadlets migrate from the lake to the nearby forest. The resort municipality said in a statement that once migration begins, the Lost Lake access road and parking lot will be closed to all vehicle traffic. Lost Lake Beach, grassy areas, and the nearby trail will only be open to foot traffic, but could also close if there is a large number of migrating toads. During peak times, about 1,800 toads cross the beach trail every hour. Lost Lake Park acts as the breeding ground for Whistler’s largest population of Western Toad (Anaxyrus boreas), a sensitive species that is native to British Columbia. The amphibian can be sensitive to changes in its environment because of its porous skin.

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New Wildfire Preparedness Guide published

By Blair McBride
BC Local News
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The British Columbia government has released the new Wildfire Preparedness Guide. The 20-page guide is the first of its kind and as its title suggests is dedicated completely to wildfire preparedness. “The probability of damaging wildfires has increased in recent years, due in part to the effects of climate change. If you live in a risk area, it’s imperative that you take time to get ready,” the guide said in its introductory comments. It features information from before, during and after wildfires, representing “the complete disaster cycle, from mitigation and preparedness to wildfire response and recovery,” said Tara Gostelow, spokesperson with Emergency Management BC. …Gostelow said the guide include pertinent themes identified by the public over the past two wildfire seasons. They include health-focussed advice on managing wildfire smoke exposure, how to manage anxiety related to wildfires and evacuations and information on insuring property and understanding the policy entitlements.

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Fort Nelson gets a bump to annual allowable cut

By Nelson Bennett
Business in Vancouver
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The annual allowable cut for the Fort Nelson timber supply region will be increased by 1 million cubic metres. It may be the only region of the province to actually see its AAC increase. The AAC for interior region timber supply areas is on the decline, due to the mountain pine beetle epidemic, and the coastal region is under unrelenting pressure to protect old growth forests from logging through parks and protected areas. The Fort Nelson region was largely untouched by the Mountain pine beetle infestation, and does not have the same conservation concerns over caribou that could take 300,000 cubic metres out of the AAC for the Peace region. Mills that once operated there have been idle for years, which has resulted in an undercut. …The regional government has been lobbying for an increase in the AAC to lure new sawmills to the area.

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A chance to save B.C.’s last ancient forests

By Gary Fiege, Public and Private Workers of Canada and Jens Wieting, Sierra Club of B.C.
Victoria Times Colonist
July 18, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

British Columbia’s old-growth forests, the values they hold for Indigenous peoples, and forestry-dependent communities are in crisis. Raw log exports remain at record high levels and mills are closing. The climate crisis, insect outbreaks and massive forest fires are here to stay. But we’re still clearcutting the most endangered, resilient and carbon-rich forests at an alarming rate. Even more irresponsible, B.C. is exporting about three million cubic metres of old-growth per year as raw logs, accepting massive environmental losses for minimal economic benefits. After decades of business as usual, time is running out for the B.C. government and industry to begin the transition to truly sustainable forestry. On the current path, we will not leave healthy forests or healthy communities for our children. The amendment process for B.C.’s forestry law, currently underway, is a chance to change course. 

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Big Lonely Doug among largest old-growth trees now on protection list

By Kevin Laird
The Sooke News Mirror
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Big Lonely Doug won’t be so lonely anymore. The Coastal Douglas-fir is among 54 of the province’s largest and oldest trees to be protected by the province along with a one-hectare buffer zone surrounding each of the giants, says Forest Minister Doug Donaldson. Big Lonely Doug is the second largest Douglas-fir in Canada. The tree, located near Port Renfrew, stands at 70.2 metres, or 230 feet. Two other trees in the Port Renfrew region – Sitka spruce – are also protected. …Donaldson says the announcement is also the start of a broader conversation about the future of old-growth management in the province. …Local environmental groups welcomed the decision to protect the 54 trees, but say much more needs to be done.

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Government takes action on old growth, protects 54 groves with iconic trees

By the Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development
Government of British Columbia
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The B.C. government is protecting some of the province’s largest trees as the first step in a new approach to old-growth management. “This province is fortunate to have trees that have been standing in place for hundreds of years – some for more than a thousand,” said Doug Donaldson, Minister of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development. “We want to protect these majestic giants so today’s families and future generations can enjoy them, just like our parents and grandparents did.” …Under a Forest Act protection measure, 54 known big trees from the Big Tree Registry at the University of British Columbia that could have been harvested will now remain standing. 

Additional coverage by Lindsay Kines in the Victoria Times Colonist

Additional coverage by Canadian Press in the Vancouver Sun

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B.C. moves to preserve 54 of its biggest, oldest trees

By Tom Fletcher
Alberni Valley News
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The B.C. government is protecting 54 of its biggest trees, each with a one-hectare grove around it to act as a buffer zone. The chosen trees are outside of parks and protected areas … including Engelmann spruce in the North Okanagan, coastal Douglas fir in the Capital Regional District and Greater Vancouver, western red cedar and sitka spruce in the Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District and interior Douglas fir in the Cariboo, Columbia-Shuswap and Thompson-Nicola Regional Districts. The list includes three Pacific yew trees in Greater Vancouver and 14 sitka spruce in the Skeena-Queen Charlotte Regional District. …Forests Minister Doug Donaldson said the initial preservation is the start of a larger program to preserve old-growth forests… The 54 trees were selected from the University of B.C.’s big tree registry… Donaldson has appointed Gary Merkel, a … member of the Tahltan Nation, and Al Gorley… to tour the province and make recommendations to the minister next spring.

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John Deere Announces New Registered Apprenticeship Program

John Deere
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

MOLINE, Ill. — John Deere has received approval from the U.S. Department of Labor for its new Registered Apprenticeship Program and is making it available to its Agriculture & Turf and Construction & Forestry dealers. The program will help address a widespread shortage of service technicians, especially in rural areas across the country, by providing dealers with a formalized, on-the-job and technical training plan to help them develop more highly skilled employees. “The new Registered Apprenticeship Program complements our existing John Deere TECH program,” said Grant Suhre, director, region 4 customer and product support for John Deere Ag & Turf. “In addition to the on-the-job training experience, an apprentice will receive technical instruction and be assigned a personal mentor as a part of the highly organized training structure. Upon completion of the apprenticeship, they will receive a nationally-recognized Journeyworker certificate.”

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Pest-killing wasps to come to the aid of Maine forests

Associated Press in the Bangor Daily News
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

MADAWASKA, Maine — The Maine Forest Service is going to deploy wasps to help beat back an invasive pest species that can do damage to trees in the state. The service says the tiny, non-stinging wasps will be released on Thursday to help control the emerald ash borer infestation in the state. It says the wasps feed in or on the borers by attacking their larvae under the bark of trees and parasitizing eggs on the surface of bark. The wasps will be released in Aroostook County in far northern Maine. The forest service says three species of wasps are being used in the pest control effort. The borer was located in Aroostook and York counties, at opposite ends of the very forested state, in 2018.

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Florida teachers participate in 2019 Forestry Tour

By Julie Kanner
The Florida Times-Union
July 17, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

Last month 40 teachers from across the state traveled to Fernandina Beach to participate in the 2019 Florida Forestry Teacher’s Tour. For four days the teachers had the opportunity to study Florida’s forest industry and its role in everyday life. The tour took the educators to various locations throughout Northeast Florida such as Jennings State Forest where they saw a prescribed fire demonstration. They also visited a small tree farm… went to West Fraser Saw Mill… had the opportunity to visit the Rayonier Forest Resources property and the WestRock papermill. …These annual tours are made possible by members of the forest industry, including Rayonier, WestRock, landowners, private citizens, the Florida Forest Service and others, and through their sponsorships. 

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Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

Researchers take stock of how Canada’s urban forests protect our health

By Michelle Lalonde
The Montreal Gazette
July 18, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: Canada East, Canada

Alain Paquette is passionate about his research on urban forests — trees that grow in cities — and their potential to improve human health and protect us from the ravages of climate change. Paquette, a biology professor at the Université du Québec à Montréal, was awarded a $540,000 grant from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for a project that… examining the resilience and benefits of Canada’s urban forests in the context of climate change. …The project has three goals: to better understand how trees grow in the urban milieu, the way climate change affects them, and how that affects the health of people in cities. …Most cities do inventories of the number and types of trees that the municipality is responsible for… But public trees account for only about half the trees growing in cities.

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What role does biomass have to play in our energy supply?

By Gary Hartley
Energy Saving Trust
July 17, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: International

UNITED KINGDOM — Biomass is a renewable energy source, generated from burning wood, plants and other organic matter, such as manure or household waste. It releases CO2 when burned, but considerably less than fossil fuels. We consider biomass a renewable energy source, if the plants or other organic materials being burned are replaced. As the UK moves away from fossil fuel, it’s interesting to note which are the most prevalent energy sources replacing coal. Biomass only contributed around 4% during the UK’s longest spell of electricity generated without coal to date, while other ‘green’ options like wind and solar accounted for 12 and 11% respectively. However, The Renewable Energy Association’s June 2019 report suggests that bioenergy could triple from the levels we see today to 16% by 2032 – and could play a role in getting the UK back on track with emissions reduction targets.

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Construction industry called on to reduce carbon emissions

RNZ.co.nz
July 18, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: International

NEW ZEALAND – Sustainable building advocates want the construction industry to be given a clear signal to reduce its carbon emissions. Stats New Zealand said emissions from the construction sector jumped 66 percent in the decade to 2017. The sector is already looking to adapt, but some said it would need help to justify the investment. Creating cement is inherently carbon intensive, with a chemical reaction decarbonising limestone. …Public submissions on the government’s Zero Carbon Bill closed earlier this week, and the Green Building Council said it was an opportunity for the industry. …”The second thing the government could do is start to include things like embodied carbon and energy efficiency in the Building Code for future regulation.”

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Forest Fires

Ontario wildfire officials say they expect ‘increased demand’ as infrastructure spreads north

By Matt Prokopchuk
CBC News
July 17, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: Canada East, Canada

Wildfire officials in northern Ontario say they expect an “increased demand” for their services as forest fires are projected to become more frequent and intense, and as more infrastructure gets built through remote parts of the province. But Darren McLarty, a fire response coordinator with the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry, says advances in information and imaging technology, along with appropriate planning and communication, will be key to protecting communities, outbuildings, power and telecommunications lines as well as other values in remote areas during forest fire season. …Mike Flannigan, a professor of wildland fire at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, said he expects Canadian summers will see more and more fires due to climate change, adding that about 2.5 million hectares burn in a given summer — or about half the size of Nova Scotia.

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Cellar Fire near Prescott grows to nearly 6,500 acres after warm weather, lower humidity

By Molly Hudson
AZ Central News
July 18, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: United States, US West

The Cellar Fire, burning about 16 miles south of Prescott, had burned about 6,450 acres as of Wednesday evening, a U.S. Forest Service spokeswoman said Wednesday morning. That figure was revised from the estimated 7,000 acres earlier in the day. The Cellar Fire was ignited by a lightning strike around 5 p.m. Sunday, growing quickly after Tuesday’s warm weather and lower humidity, said Gabrielle Kenton, a Cellar Fire public information officer.  As of Wednesday morning, the fire was 0% contained, and Kenton said the fire could grow faster if wind conditions in the area pick up. The fire was not posing a threat to any human structures or power lines, Kenton said. As a precaution a Code Red was issued for the community. …Quite a bit of smoke and haze will be visible in the area of Prescott Valley for the next couple of days, Kenton said. 

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Oregon forestry crews aid with Alaska wildfires as northern state suffers fiery summer

By Jamie Parfitt
KDRV ABC Newswatch 12
July 16, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: United States, US West

ANCHORAGE, Alaska — Fire Season has had a relatively slow start in Oregon this year thanks to “favorable” conditions, but the state of Alaska has not been so lucky. As a result, forestry crews that were busy containing wildfires close to home by this time in 2018 have taken their talents up north, according to the Oregon Department of Forestry. “ODF leadership selected personnel from areas where current conditions and available resources allow for the opportunity to send help to our Alaskan partners while ensuring capacity to respond to any local fires on the home front,” the agency said. …There are currently 28 ODF firefighters in Alaska — 20 initial attack crew members and eight “overhead,” or administrative roles.

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