Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: August 26, 2019

Today’s Takeaway

Interfor CEO Duncan Davies to retire after two decades at the helm

The Tree Frog Forestry News
August 26, 2019
Category: Today's Takeaway

Interfor’s long-time CEO Duncan Davies is stepping down at end of 2019 and Ian Fillinger will assume his role. In other Business news:  FPAC’s Derek Nighbor elected to international post; workers rally after mill closures in Mackenzie, BC, Unifor urges Ontario to restart Fort Frances mill; and BC’s Downie Timber is weathering the storm.

In Wildfire news: Brazil’s president responds to G7 pressure, orders military to fight forest fires. In related news: what’s actually happening in Brazil; a record number of wildfires in the Amazon; 51 homes lost—no silver lining in Alaskan fires; and Oregon’s cap-and-trade won’t address wildfires.

Finally, ENGO’s need to listen to their fiercest critics; FSC should lift its ban on GM trees and Canada leads the world in forest certification.

Kelly McCloskey, Tree Frog Editor

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Business & Politics

Forest Products Association of Canada President and CEO Derek Nighbor Elected International Council of Forest and Paper Associations President

International Council of Forest & Paper Associations
August 26, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada

The International Council of Forest and Paper Associations (ICFPA) has announced that Derek Nighbor, President and CEO of Forest Products Association of Canada (FPAC), has been elected its new President. “It is an honour to be chosen by colleagues from around the world to assume this role at such an exciting time for forestry and the forest products sector.  The men and women in our industry are innovative and hard-working.  They are providing solutions to some of the biggest challenges facing people around the world,” said Nighbor.  “Canada was built on forestry.  In Canada, I work hard every day to advance the opportunities that our sector brings to communities like the one I grew up in.  In this new role, I look forward to working with my international colleagues to do the same thing on the global stage,” Nighbor added. …“We are very fortunate to have Derek’s leadership at this important time for our industry,” Molony said.  

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As Amazon burns, Brazil signals it’s paying attention to G7 pressure

By Eric Reguly, European Bureau Chief
The Globe and Mail
August 25, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, International

If the Group of Seven summit has a bogeyman, it is Jair Bolsonaro, the Brazilian President who has been dubbed “Captain Chainsaw” for putting commercial interests ahead of protecting the Amazon rain forest. …Mr. Bolsonaro did not take kindly to the rather inconvenient data. His response was to accuse the agency’s boss, Ricardo Galvao, of “peddling lies.” …Brazil is not a member of the G7 (it’s part of the Group of Twenty) and you could argue that the G7 has no business telling other countries what to do with their natural resources. …French President Emmanuel Macron, the host of the G7 summit, and Prime Minister Justin Trudeau … were the first two G7 leaders to pile pressure on Mr. Bolsonaro, to the point the summit evolved quickly into an environmental affair. …For decades, the environment has actually been a central issue at G7 summits, even though most observers think it is obsessed merely with economics.

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Whats Next with Lumber Tariffs

By Brian Kline
Realty Biz News
August 23, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, United States

If you’re a bit of a news hound, you’re hearing quite a bit about U.S. tariffs on Chinese manufactured goods. But what about the tariff on Canadian lumber …Currently, there is no known plan to remove the Canada lumber tariff. What’s amazingly is that lumber prices are falling because of weak demand in new home construction. …The tariff on Canada lumber doesn’t ultimately seem to be a contributing factor to the declining new home construction. The numbers are a little old but use of domestic lumber has barely budgeted from 67% in 2016 to 69% in 2018. It appears that other overseas providers are filling the gap. …A reasonable conclusion seems to be that the tariffs imposed on Canadian lumber are just one more regulation impacting new home construction. 

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Warplanes dump water on burning Amazon as Brazil military begins fighting fires

By Jake Spring and Ricardo Moraes
Reuters
August 25, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, International

BRASILIA/PORTO VELHO, Brazil – Brazilian warplanes are dumping water on the burning forest in the Amazon state of Rondonia, responding to a global outcry over the destruction of the world’s largest tropical rain forest. As of Sunday, President Jair Bolsonaro had authorized military operations in seven states to combat raging fires in the Amazon, responding to requests for assistance from their local governments, a spokeswoman for his office said. …The response comes as leaders of countries in the Group of Seven (G7) nations currently meeting in France expressed grave concerns over the fires. French President Emmanuel Macron on Sunday said the G7 was nearing a deal to provide “technical and financial help” to countries affected by the Amazon fires.

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President & CEO Duncan Davies to step down at end of 2019; Ian Fillinger appointed President & CEO effective January 1, 2020

By Interfor Corporation
Global Newswire
August 26, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Duncan Davies

VANCOUVER — INTERFOR CORPORATION  announced today that long-time President & CEO Duncan Davies will step down on December 31, 2019 and that Ian Fillinger, currently the Company’s Senior Vice President & COO, has been appointed President & CEO effective January 1, 2020.  Mr. Fillinger will also serve on the Company’s Board of Directors following this date. Mr. Davies joined Interfor in June 1998, was appointed President in December of that year and CEO in February 2000.  Over the last 20 years he has led the transformation of Interfor from a small regional producer, located primarily on the BC Coast, into the 4th largest lumber company in the world with operations in Canada and the United States. …Mr. Davies, who will also step down from his role as a director of the Company, has agreed to remain with the Company in an advisory capacity through the end of 2020.   

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Hamptons intentions need to be clarified

Letter by Brenda Gouglas
Caledonia Courier
August 24, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Brenda Gouglas

Since the announcement that Conifex was selling their Fort St. James sawmill and forest licence to Hampton I have spent time learning about the sale in relation to Hampton’s current operations. Information I found suggests to me that Hampton would use most, if not all, of the forest licence volume to meet the needs of their current operations, rather than those of their intended sawmill in Fort St. James. In light of that information I believe Hampton’s intentions for use of the timber needs to be clarified. My research took me back to a January 2012 Lakes District News article, in which Hampton said they needed at least 1 million cubic metres of wood annually to justify rebuilding the Babine Forest Products sawmill in Burns Lake.

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Workers rally in Mackenzie, B.C., to draw attention to continuing lumber crisis

Canadian Press in the Globe and Mail
August 23, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

An energetic rally by workers in Mackenzie in north-central British Columbia has highlighted the desperate situation facing many forestry-dependent communities across the province. Three wood products operations in Mackenzie closed indefinitely or cut hours this summer, blaming high log costs and adverse market conditions. Mayor Joan Atkinson says about 400 workers have been directly affected by the closure of the Canfor mill and slowdowns at two other operations, including the Conifex sawmill which is not due to reopen until Sept. 2. Ms. Atkinson says at least another 400 indirect jobs are on the line in the community of 3,500, where there’s also concern for the future of the Paper Excellence pulp mill because it relies on sawdust from the lumber operations. Forests Minister Doug Donaldson joined as many as 1,000 people at the Thursday rally.

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Despite brief shut downs Revelstoke’s Downie Timber weathering the storm

By Liam Harrap
Revelstoke Times Review
August 24, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Almost 4,000 people across the province have been impacted by closures and curtailments in B.C’s forest industry. “It’s been a struggle,” said Angus Woodman, plant manager at Downie Timber. The plant plans to shut its sawmill for the first week of September and be operational again Sept. 9. However, other departments will still be working, such as shipping, maintenance and the log yard. There are roughly 50 workers in the sawmill. This will be the third closure in the last year. The sawmill briefly closed in November and the first week in August. Workers were also given Fridays off in March. …Downie Timber is one of the main employers in Revelstoke, with up to 300 employees. While Woodman said the current economic climate is difficult, Downie is fortunate to have its fingers in multiple markets, such as the U.S., Ontario and Japan. However, poor weather has led to decreased demand in Canada.

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Province must take action to support forestry workers in Fort Frances

By Unifor
Cision Newswire
August 23, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada

TORONTO – Unifor forestry members are urging the province to take immediate action in the efforts to re-start the Fort Frances pulp and paper mill, and protect the rights of the publicly-owned forestlands in the region. “We’ve been working with the Town of Fort Frances and other key stakeholders since 2014 when the mill closed to explore new ownership and a re-starting of the mill,” said Stephen Boon, Unifor National Representative. “Re-starting this mill would see 600 direct jobs restored by next year which would be a relief for the entire town. Ministers Rickford and Yakabuski and the province of Ontario must take the necessary steps to support this community.” Fort Frances mill owners, Resolute Forest Products, rejected every proposal for renewed mill operations and instead sold the mill property in July 2019 to a re-purposing company, Riversedge Developments.

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Finance & Economics

Navigating Rough Seas: Home Depot And Lowe’s

By Jim Hilton
Seeking Alpha
August 26, 2019
Category: Finance & Economics

There are a number of strong macro headwinds we see for Home Depot and Lowe’s. High inventories, falling lumber demand, and increased costs from tariffs are chief among these. The companies were in radically different places when this started, Home Depot in a much better position. They are both trying to get out of this by shifting their supply chain and reducing old inventories at discounts. Home Depot is doing better, though not well.

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Wood, Paper & Green Building

Kelowna looks at letting developers build 12-storey wooden buildings

By Rob Munro
Info Tel News
August 23, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

KELOWNA – The high-rise building boom in downtown Kelowna means neighbours have to put up with construction noise and traffic disruptions for a year or more for each tower that goes up. That could change for some neighbourhoods if Kelowna city council agrees to be an early adopter of new rules allowing for wooden towers to be built up to 12 storeys. …Changes to the national and provincial building codes are being made to allow for 12-storey wooden towers, but the new rules won’t be in place for at least two or three years. So, the province is encouraging cities like Kelowna to allow for the taller wooden buildings in advance of the formal rules, making it more likely developers will adopt the new system sooner. The big advantage of building with wood is that the time to actually put up the building will be greatly reduced.

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UMaine, Bowdoin each get $100K for mass timber projects

MaineBiz
August 23, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: US East, United States

Bowdoin College and the University of Maine are among 10 institutions that have received $100,000 each from the U.S. Forest Service to research and construct mass timber buildings on college campuses. The awards were announced in a news release Thursday by U.S. Sens. Angus King, I-Maine, and Susan Collins, R-Maine. In December, King led a bipartisan group of nine senators including Collins in a letter urging USFS to create an award program for educational institutions seeking innovative uses for mass timber. The program was established by USFS in March. Mass timber is a term referring to new ways of using timber for construction, including cross-laminated timber. The money will support construction projects at Bowdoin and UMaine, as well as highlight the variety of potential uses for mass timber, the release said.

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Forestry

The Sustainable Forestry Initiative Highlights Benefits of Sustainable Forests in Canada and the United States

By Sustainable Forestry Initiative Inc.
Global Newswire
August 26, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada

OTTAWA — The Sustainable Forestry Initiative Inc. (SFI) committed in its latest annual progress report to continue advancing sustainability through forest-focused collaborations by maximizing its efforts in standards, conservation, education, and community. SFI’s 2019 report, entitled “Forests of Opportunity”, recounts the organization’s accomplishments encouraging and certifying the latest best practices in sustainable forest management with all its partners in Canada and the U.S. The report reflects the organization’s belief in the wealth of possibilities for economic growth, job‑creation and community building available by taking advantage of the values, goods and services provided by sustainably managed forests and sustainably sourced forest products. “Forests provide an opportunity to maintain and recover biodiversity and sustain a variety of conservation values, including clean water,” Kathy Abusow, President and CEO of SFI said in the foreword to the 2019 report. “But to seize these opportunities, forests must be sustainably managed and forest products must be responsibly sourced.”

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Final Cut: Canada leads in forest certification

By Derek Nighbor – President and CEO
Forest Products Association of Canada
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada

Derek Nighbor

Forestry has long been foundational in the history, economy, and culture of Canada. More recently, it has figured prominently in what is fast becoming a global “cri de coeur” for environmental leadership and action on climate change. This past December, Canada’s forest sector was validated at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP24), which officially recognized the critical role that forest management plays in helping us achieve global climate change targets. Although not widely understood, Canada’s forest certification regime plays an important role in maintaining this global reputation for leadership and excellence. When it comes to forest certification, Canada leads the world with an estimated 164 million hectares certified. This represents 70 per cent of Canada’s managed forest – or an area larger than the entire province of Quebec. Impressive numbers to be sure, but what does it really mean and why should anyone care? …Our commitment to delivering environmental, economic, and social benefits to Canadians for generations to come is certified.

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FOREST INK: More Industrial complexes needed

By Jim Hilton
BC Local News
August 24, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The engage paper had a number of questions dealing with improving utilization of residual wood and sequestering more carbon. I am suggesting properly located industrial complexes may have some of the answers. Imagine if the local lumber mills, bioenergy plants, pulp mills and pellet plants were located in close proximity and a reasonable distance away from residential areas rather than in the valleys which have local climate and health issues. …I am not suggesting that the existing industrial infrastructures are likely to move to these industrial complexes but any new ventures would see the benefits of establishing in these areas. The first step would be planning the location of the log-biomass sort yards. The location should consider the residual wood study done by FPI innovations.

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Student exhibit looks at logging

By Christine Hinzmann
The Prince George Citizen
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Molly Fandrey, Neyve Egger &Tehja Orcherton

There’s a student-led exhibit at the Central B.C. Railway and Forestry Museum that focuses on logging and how it impacted the region. The exhibit is called Forestry in the 20th Century: Changing Technology and its Ecological Impact and will be on display until the end of October when the Celebration of Lights display will take its place in the main room of the museum. It took two months of research and collecting artifacts and two weeks to physically put it all together, including making a skid road for a forestry sleigh and models of streams and railways, and a miniature beehive burner to speak to the issues of the ecological impact logging had on the area.

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The Forest Service is attacking the country’s most important conservation law

By Wil Harlan
The Blue Ridge Outdoors
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: United States

The Forest Service is proposing to cut the public from public lands. It’s doing so by gutting the most important conservation law on the books. You’ve probably heard of the Endangered Species Act, Clean Air Act, and Clean Water Act—all of which are also under attack by the current administration. But none of them are as important as NEPA—the National Environmental Policy Act. …NEPA is the unsung, unheralded hero of conservation in this country. …Last month, the U.S. Forest Service proposed new loopholes to NEPA that would  eliminate advance notice and comment for a host of potentially harmful projects, such as logging up to 4,200 acres at a time, building 5 miles of roads, or bulldozing 4 miles of utility corridors. …Why? The Forest Service says… will speed up their work. 

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Scientists say sustainable forestry organizations should lift ban on biotech trees

By Erik Stokstad
Science: American Association for the Advancement of Science
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: United States

Look at anything made from trees…and it’s probably stamped with the logo of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) or an equivalent organization. These nonprofits certify that forests are managed sustainably, and one common requirement is no genetically modified (GM) trees. But that ban hinders research and should change, researchers say in today’s issue of Science. The technology, they argue, has important potential to remedy many pressing problems facing forests. …Certification of forest sustainability began to take off in the 1990s. …The organizations say that since their inception, they have banned GM trees as a precaution against uncertain environmental risks. …A big problem with the ban is that managers of certified forests will not be able to plant GM trees that could, for example, better resist pests and drought, says Steven Strauss, a forest biotechnologist at Oregon State University in Corvallis, a co-author of the letter and a petition.

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To save endangered species, environmentalists need to listen to their fiercest critics

By Steven C. Beda, professor of history at the University of Oregon
The Washington Post
August 26, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

The Trump administration announced changes to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) this week that would require the government to consider economic effects before listing a species as threatened or endangered. …journalists and environmentalists [say] new changes threaten to undo many of the gains in species protection made [in the past]. …men and women who work in resource extraction industries care deeply for the land and have a long and proud tradition of fighting to protect nature. Yet they are siding with the Trump Administration over the ESA rule changes. And that’s the result of decades of environmentalists ignoring the economic consequences of the ESA on these populations. Rather than fighting these loggers and miners, environmentalists …would be wise to listen to their criticism. 

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NASA to help with UMaine project to study forest health

The Associated Press in the Bangor Daily News
August 25, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is helping Maine get a better handle on the health of its forests. The University of Maine said NASA is providing nearly $750,000 for a three-year project that will focus on assessing and monitoring “the quality, health and value” of Maine’s forested land. Maine is the most forested state in the U.S. UMaine School of Forest Resources assistant professor Parinaz Rahimzadeh is leading the effort. The university said a team of researchers will use remote sensing technology to develop models with “near-real-time data on forest tree species identification, and forest tree decline detection and damage assessment.” The work is expected to ultimately provide information on the composition of Maine’s forest and on damage caused by recent outbreaks of pests and pathogens.

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The Amazon in Brazil is on fire – how bad is it?

By The Visual Data Team
BBC News
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry, Forest Fires
Region: International

Thousands of fires are ravaging the Amazon rainforest in Brazil – the most intense blazes for almost a decade. …So what’s actually happening and how bad are the fires? Brazil has seen a record number of fires in 2019, Brazilian space agency data suggests. The National Institute for Space Research (Inpe) says its satellite data shows an 85% increase on the same period in 2018. Forest fires … can be caused by naturally occurring events, such as by lightning strikes, but also by farmers and loggers clearing land for crops or grazing. …Most of the worst-affected regions are in the north of the country. …The Amazon Environmental Research Institute (Ipam) has stated the recent increase in the number of fires in the Amazon is directly related to deliberate deforestation. …Deforestation was 278% higher in July 2019 than in July 2018, according to Inpe. …But according to the data, emissions in Brazil were higher in the mid-2000s, as the chart below indicates.

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Environmentalists Have Been Warning About Amazon Fires for Decades. The Stakes Are Now Higher Than Ever

By Mahita Gajanan
Time Magazine
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: International

The Amazon rain forest is burning — news that prompted shock and fear across the world as Brazil’s space research agency reported this week that a record number of fires have broken out in the forest this year. …By Thursday, French president Emmanuel Macron had called discussions of the “international crisis” to be at the top of the agenda at the upcoming G7 Summit in France. The burning Amazon was featured on the cover of TIME in 1989, with an accompanying piece detailing the impact of fires that were set by farmers and cattle ranchers as part of an annual ritual to clear land for crops and livestock. The fires in the forest now are also man-made, and deforestation can bring on other factors that can lead to them spreading faster, Deborah Lawrence, an environmental sciences professor at the University of Virginia, tells TIME. 

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Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

Genomics-Based Research Will Help Develop Crops for Bioenergy

By The US Department of Energy
United States Government
August 21, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States

WASHINGTON, D.C.—Today, the U.S. Department of Energy announced $64 million in funding for 25 university-led genomics research projects on plants and microbes for bioenergy and bioproducts. The plant research—12 projects totaling $29 million over three years—focuses on expanding knowledge of gene function in plants to be grown for bioenergy and bioproducts.  The aim is to pinpoint the connection between specific regions of plant genomes and particular plant traits, so that features such as drought resistance and crop yield can be improved. …“We are entering an era when genomics is giving us ever greater understanding of what controls biological systems,” said Under Secretary for Science Paul Dabbar. 

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‘There is no silver lining’: why Alaska fires are a glimpse of our climate future

By Elizabeth Harball
The Guardian UK
August 23, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States, US West

Major fires are burning this week in south-central Alaska, lengthening the state’s wildfire season, which has usually ended by the beginning of August. They come after Alaska’s hottest July on record, during which its largest city, Anchorage, had a temperature pass 90F (32C) for the first time. On top of that, the area has seen little rain this summer, resulting in extremely dry conditions. As firefighters tackle the blazes, officials are facing the longer term challenges of keeping the region safe amid increasing evidence of the impacts of the climate crisis. Wildfires are a growing concern around the country. According to the latest National Climate Assessment, hotter, drier conditions over the past two decades have led to more area being burned across the US.

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Cap-and-trade legislation won’t address wildfire

By Rep. Kim Wallan, R-Medford
Mail Tribune
August 25, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States, US West

Kim Wallan

The proponents of the cap-and-trade tax legislation that failed to pass in the recent legislative session are working hard to promote certain narratives about what it would mean for Oregon if it passes. The most disturbing of these narratives is that this tax will somehow address the wildfires that fill our skies with smoke every summer. This claim simply cannot go unanswered; the flaws in the logic are manifold. . …Asserting that taxing fossil fuels will somehow reverse the current trend ignores the obvious and immediate causes of our wildfires. Dry conditions in the forests is a clear contributor, but there are many other factors as well, and we are fools if we ignore them: For 30 years we have been reducing the number of board feet of timber we remove from the land while the trees continue to grow.

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Forest Fires

Logging truck starts forest fire north of Nakusp

By John Boivin
Arrow Lakes News
August 23, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: Canada West

People travelling along Highway 23 north of Nakusp can expect some delays today as fire crews work a blaze started on Thursday. Highway 23 north of Nakusp was closed briefly yesterday after a logging truck caught on fire, spreading flames to the nearby forest. Local fire crews and the BC Wildfire Service responded to the fire about 22 kilometers north of Nakusp, just south of the Halfway River. “The fire was the result of a logging truck fire near Highway 23 which spread into the adjacent forest,” said a news release from BC Wildfire. “[C]rews and aviation resources responded along with the local fire department.” The fire is about one hectare in size, and is displaying minimal fire behaviour, said a spokesperson for the Southeast Fire Centre. Twenty BC Wildfire Service personnel were on site Friday to continue suppression activities.

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‘Out of control’ forest fire burning near Miramichi

CBC News
August 23, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: Canada East, Canada

An “out of control” forest fire is raging about 12 kilometres west of Miramichi. Matthew Ruff, a co-ordinator with the provincial forest fire management branch, said the fire was detected around 9 p.m. Thursday. It is believed to have started in an area where branches and other debris were left over from a forestry operation. The size of the blaze is about 25 hectares. Crews are water bombing the fire from the air, and 16 firefighters are fighting from the ground.  Ruff said windy conditions have made it harder to control the flames. …No buildings or infrastructure are in danger. 

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51 homes, 3 businesses lost in Alaska wildfire

By Mark Thiessen
Associated Press in the Washington Post
August 23, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: United States

ANCHORAGE, Alaska — A wildfire burning north of Anchorage, Alaska, has destroyed 51 homes and three businesses, officials said Friday. Another 84 buildings between the communities of Willow and Talkeetna, about 70 miles north of the state’s largest city, also have been destroyed, fire information manager Kale Casey said. Hundreds of people have been evacuated because of the fire that started Sunday night along the Parks Highway, the main thoroughfare that connects Anchorage to Denali National Park and Preserve and Fairbanks. Gov. Michael Dunleavy issued a disaster declaration for the Matanuska Susitna Borough and Kenai Peninsula Borough for impacts from fires. The exact cause of the fire is under investigation, but officials have said it was human-caused.

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The Amazon in Brazil is on fire – how bad is it?

By The Visual Data Team
BBC News
August 23, 2019
Category: Forestry, Forest Fires
Region: International

Thousands of fires are ravaging the Amazon rainforest in Brazil – the most intense blazes for almost a decade. …So what’s actually happening and how bad are the fires? Brazil has seen a record number of fires in 2019, Brazilian space agency data suggests. The National Institute for Space Research (Inpe) says its satellite data shows an 85% increase on the same period in 2018. Forest fires … can be caused by naturally occurring events, such as by lightning strikes, but also by farmers and loggers clearing land for crops or grazing. …Most of the worst-affected regions are in the north of the country. …The Amazon Environmental Research Institute (Ipam) has stated the recent increase in the number of fires in the Amazon is directly related to deliberate deforestation. …Deforestation was 278% higher in July 2019 than in July 2018, according to Inpe. …But according to the data, emissions in Brazil were higher in the mid-2000s, as the chart below indicates.

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