Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: November 13, 2019

Today’s Takeaway

Trouble in Timberland – an intense bust cycle: Friedman

The Tree Frog Forestry News
November 13, 2019
Category: Today's Takeaway

Like oil and gas in Alberta, forestry is experiencing an intense bust cycle that is quietly killing small town BC, says the Financial Post’s Gabriel Friedman. In related news: BC’s latest trade mission to Asia; and logging convoy leaders target every affected BC community. Elsewhere: the US puts WTO dispute settlement system in peril; New Zealand is happy with China trade deal; and US hardwood producers keep pleading for relief.

In Forestry/Climate news: the choice before us by a climate crisis realist; Oregon puts a high price on fighting future wildfires; the uncertain future of Michigan’s wood-fired power plants; the negative impact of wildfires on Arizona’s streams; and a rare deer-like forest species is photographed for the first time in Vietnam.

Finally, a Tree Frog congrats to AF&PA’s sustainability award winners.

Kelly McCloskey, Tree Frog Editor

Read More

Business & Politics

Parliamentary secretary’s statement on Tolko Industries lumber mill closure

By Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development
Government of British Columbia
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Ravi Kahlon, Parliamentary Secretary for the Ministry of Forests, Lands, Natural Resource Operations and Rural Development, has released the following statement in response to the permanent closure of the Tolko Industries lumber mill in Kelowna: “I was disappointed to hear of the permanent closure of the Tolko lumber mill and the uncertainly workers will now have about their future. At the same time, I want people to know that this government is working hard to make sure support is delivered to forestry workers, contractors and communities like Kelowna that have been affected. “I want the people of Kelowna to know that Tolko mill workers impacted by the closure can access forest worker support programs online through the government’s web portal. “The web portal includes the latest information and application details for the retirement bridging program, the forest employment program, community support grants and training opportunities and funding.”

Read More

City of Powell River Council advocates for resolution to current forestry strike

By Paul Galinski
The Powell River Peak
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

George Doubt

City of Powell River will be urging Western Forest Products and the United Steelworkers to get back to the bargaining table to resolve the current strike. At the Thursday, November 7, council meeting, councillors reviewed a draft letter that will be signed by a number of mayors from coastal communities, citing the lack of progress in bargaining as being “very concerning to us as community leaders,” according to the draft. Acting mayor George Doubt said the strike has been affecting many communities on Vancouver Island and the coast. He said there had been a string of communications among mayors from Port McNeill, North Cowichan, Campbell River, Port Hardy, Port Alice, Port Alberni, Sayward, Tahsis and Ladysmith. …Doubt said the mayors are not taking sides in the issue.

Read More

West of the oilsands, another sector is suffering its own ’existential crisis’ — in silence

By Gabriel Friedman
The National Post
November 13, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

If a tree falls in a forest and no one is around, it doesn’t much matter if it makes a sound. But if a sawmill closes in a remote BC town, the impact is all too real even if no one outside hears about it. That’s about what retired forester Jerry Canuel was thinking to himself in September when… they all descended on Vancouver… bring some attention to the troubled state of the province’s forestry sector.. …At least nine sawmills in B.C. this year have been shuttered while an estimated 47 others have cut shifts. …“Everyone thinks about the sawmills, and the people who work there, but it’s also contractors and people who deliver wood to the mill, mechanics, equipment sellers,” said Todd Chamberlain of the ILA. Unfortunately, forestry is experiencing an intense bust cycle, and it’s also one where the largest companies are seeking growth opportunities outside Canada, mainly in the U.S., further fuelling the sense of discord in the West.

Read More

Organizers of logging convoy meet with Thompson-Nicola Regional District

By Jessica Wallace
Kamloops this Week
November 8, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

The Merritt log haulers who organized a truck convoy in support of B.C.’s forestry industry were at the Thompson Nicola Regional District Thursday to continue advocacy efforts. Frank Etchart and Howard McKimmom led a 17-kilometre-long convoy with 200 trucks and hundreds of other vehicles from Merritt to downtown Vancouver on Sept. 25, …for the annual Union of B.C. Municipalities convention. “Frank and I are prepared to take this to every community in British Columbia,” McKimmom told KTW. “We will go to council for every small community in B.C. that’s affected. We’re set out to make every business and every person in every community aware of what’s happening.” The pair are lobbying for changes to B.C.’s Forest Act, including reduced stumpage fees and timber supply tenure. They argue big companies should not be able to sell timber rights when they shut down in small communities. 

Read More

BC’s Asia Trade Mission Looks To Expand Markets

Darpan Magazine
November 8, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Doug Donaldson

Doug Donaldson, Minister of Forests, will be joined by 35 senior executives from B.C. forest companies and associations as he leads his third forestry trade mission to Asia. From Nov. 10 to 15, 2019, delegates will meet with stakeholders to promote B.C.’s innovative wood products. B.C. exports 90% of its forest products, and China and Japan are B.C.’s largest markets outside of North America. China represents 28% of B.C.’s total forest product exports, while Japan is B.C.’s third-largest export market for lumber products. In Shanghai, at the Sino-Canadian Wood Forum, delegates will have the opportunity to meet with Chinese businesses to expand markets for B.C. wood products, particularly to the higher-value segment of Chinese markets where the superiority of B.C. wood is a clear advantage. …The Japan Home Show is also on the agenda, where tour delegates will view a full-scale resource and development demonstration centre that showcases Canadian wood in market-building innovations. 

Read More

U.S. Raises Prospect of Blocking Passage of WTO Budget

By Bryce Blaschuk
Bloomberg Economics
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States, International

The Trump administration ratcheted up its pressure on the World Trade Organization by raising the possibility of blocking the approval of the institution’s biennial budget and effectively halting its work starting next year. …The U.S. also expressed its concerns about funding being diverted to a proxy dispute settlement system recently championed by the European Union, Canada and Norway, the people said. …If the U.S. unilaterally kills off funding, it could imperil the future of the WTO’s work and force countries to fundamentally rethink their reliance on it to negotiate trade deals and settle the surging number of disputes. …About a dozen appeal cases are pending, including… a pair of U.S.-Canadian disputes over paper and softwood lumber. Canada, the EU and Norway have already agreed to set up an alternate channel for settling trade disputes in order to sidestep the looming deadlock.

Read More

Hardwood industry pleads with Washington for trade war relief

By Robert Dalheim
Woodworking Network
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States

WASHINGTON – Made up of 28 U.S. trade and hardwood associations, the Hardwood Federation says the industry has seen a dramatic impact since the start of the trade war, and it plans to amp up pressure on lawmakers. Nathan Jeppson, CEO of Northwest Hardwoods, will meet this week with the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative to push for relief, reports The Hill. …The Hardwood Federation has sent a proposal for a relief package to the administration in October but has not heard back. …The Federation says the hardwood industry employs about 2 million people in the U.S. Sawmills tend to be family-owned and located near timberlands in the Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and South. …The export council says the value of U.S. hardwood lumber exports have dropped 57 percent since the start of the trade war to $54 million as of August.

Read More

Alaskan Tribal Leaders to Testify Before Congress in Battle to Stop Trump Administration Lifting Logging Restrictions in America’s Largest National Forest

By Aristos Grergiou
Newsweek
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States, US West

On Wednesday, Alaskan tribal leaders, environmentalists and fishermen will testify at a hearing, voicing their concerns over the potential lifting of environmental restrictions in the Tongass National Forest. The Tongass is the largest national forest in the U.S.—covering an area of around 16.7 million acres—and, indeed, one of the largest intact temperate forests in the world. The hearing on Wednesday—held by the Natural Resources Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Land—revolves around the so-called “Roadless Rule,” which was introduced in 2001. Native American groups who live in the area and rely on the forest say its removal could have potentially devastating consequences for their way of life. …Aside from the impact on local tribes and the fact that there may be little economic benefit as a result of the Roadless Rule exemption, critics say there could be severe environmental consequences if the forest is opened up to further logging.

Read More

Oregon council predicts wildfire costs to hit tens of billions

KTVZ Oregon
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States, US West

Kate Brown

The Governor’s Council on Wildfire Response released its report Tuesday, predicting the overall cost of extended wildfire seasons will exceed tens of billions of dollars over the next 20 years. Studies suggest the comprehensive costs of wildfire are, on average, 11 times greater than the immediate costs of firefighting. With firefighting costs exceeding $500 million during high-fire seasons, comprehensive costs to Oregonians can total several billion dollars in a single year. The indirect costs of wildfires are high, too—according to another report, the health costs caused by wildfire smoke in Oregon in 2012 was over $2 billion. Governor Brown… created the council through executive order in January, tasking them to compile comprehensive recommendations and a cohesive strategy to deal with the increasing difficulties posed by wildfires and smoke, tailored specifically to the challenges faced in Oregon.

Read More

Ron DeSantis: USDA Helping Florida Timber Industry Recover From Hurricane Michael

Florida Daily
November 12, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: US East, United States

The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is sending $800 million to Alabama, Florida and Georgia and almost of those funds will be used to help the timber industry in the Panhandle which was devastated by Hurricane Michael last year. At the end of last week, Gov. Ron DeSantis said the USDA has awarded $380 million in grant funding for Florida’s timber industry which is still recovering from Hurricane Michael. The Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) and the Executive Office of the Governor will oversee the funds. “This is a great day for our timber farmers who were devastated by Hurricane Michael,” said DeSantis. “Since January, I’ve worked closely with President Trump and Secretary Purdue to ensure that our farmers were receiving as much assistance as possible. …Now that this funding has been awarded, we look forward to helping these farmers recover, replant and rebuild.”

Read More

‘Lives at risk’: Liberals say logging ban poses mental health threat

By Charlotte Grieve and Benjamin Preiss
The Sydney Morning Herald
November 13, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International

The opposition has accused the Andrews government of putting timber workers’ lives at risk after abolishing native forest logging, sparking an impassioned exchange in the Victorian Parliament on Wednesday. …deputy leader of the state Liberal Party Cindy McLeish asked what percentage of this [support] package would go towards supporting affected workers’ mental health. …Ms McLeish then quoted a timber contractor from Millgrove who said: “There will be suicides.” She quoted the contractor as saying: “No one wants to come out and say it, but you can’t rip apart someone’s town, livelihood and community and think everyone can just get on with it. This is life-destroying.” …Nationals MP Stephanie Ryan, said: “Livelihoods are going to be destroyed. This is not cheap politics. If the minister doesn’t know the intricacies of those logging contractors who are going to lose their jobs as a consequence of his government’s policy, then he isn’t fit to be minister.”

Read More

Trade deals tether New Zealand to calm, predictable shores

By David Parker, NZ Trade and Export Growth Minister
Stuff.co.nz
November 13, 2019
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International

David Parker

The Employers and Manufacturers Association described as a historic 24 hours the settling last week of two trade agreements boosting prospects for the economy and for exporters. The successful outcome of talks to upgrade the China free trade agreement and the agreement on the text of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) were milestones for our trade policy. But they also represent huge strategic as well as commercial value to New Zealand. The China upgrade… lowers barriers for our wood and paper products… and includes a commitment to environmental protections. …Meanwhile, under the RCEP deal virtually all market access issues have been agreed between 15 countries. …The grouping takes 61 per cent of our goods exports. [The RCEP is a proposed free trade agreement between Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam and Australia, China, Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea].

Read More

Finance & Economics

Pinnacle Renewable Energy reports fiscal 2019 third quarter results

By Pinnacle Renewable Energy
The Canadian Business Journal
November 13, 2019
Category: Finance & Economics
Region: Canada, Canada West

VANCOUVER – Pinnacle Renewable Energy today announced its financial results for the quarter ended September 27, 2019. “The third quarter of 2019 was a challenging period as a number of our B.C. fibre suppliers curtailed operations, resulting in a transition to an increased use of harvest residuals in our production process, driving higher costs,” said Rob McCurdy, CEO of Pinnacle. Revenue increased 5.6% to $92.6 million, compared to $87.6 million of revenue in Q3 2018. Early in Q3 2019, Pinnacle entered into a limited partnership agreement with Tolko Industries Ltd. to build a new industrial wood pellet production facility in High Level, Alberta

Read More

Wood, Paper & Green Building

2018 AF&PA Sustainability Award Winners Announced

The American Forest & Paper Association
WhatTheyThink
November 13, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: United States

WASHINGTON – The American Forest & Paper Association presented its 2018 Better Practices, Better Planet 2020 Sustainability Awards at AF&PA’s annual meeting in Bluffton, South Carolina. …AF&PA’s annual awards are designed to recognize exemplary sustainability programs and initiatives in the paper and wood products manufacturing industry and are given based on the merit of entries received across multiple categories:

  • Leadership in Sustainability – Energy Efficiency/Greenhouse Gas Reduction
    Resolute Forest ProductsSeaman Paper Company
  • Leadership in Sustainability – Safety
    WestRock: Hopewell Recovery Boiler Elimination Project
  • Leadership in Sustainability – Sustainable Forest Management
    Domtar: Promoting Sustainable Forest Management for Landowners
  • Leadership in Sustainability – Water
    Green Bay Packaging: Water Reduction Achievements at Green Bay Mill
  • Innovation in Sustainability
    WestRock: EnShield® Natural Kraft

Read More

Large Mass-Timber Building Opens at University of Arkansas

By Kara Mavros
Architectural Record
November 12, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: US East, United States

Gone are the days of cramped, concrete cell–style dorm living. At the beginning of the fall 2019 semester, University of Arkansas students moved into Adohi Hall, a new, $79 million, 200,000 square-foot residence hall, designed by Boston-based Leers Weinzapfel Associates in collaboration with St. Louis–based Mackey Mitchell Architects, Philadelphia’s OLIN, and the local Arkansian Modus Studio. …“The mass timber design reimagines the traditional notion of campus housing as a building on a quad lawn,” Leers Weinzapfel Associates principal Tom Chung tells RECORD, instead channeling “a cabin in the woods, where building and landscape are woven together.” The architects used timber, a renewable resource with low embodied carbon, as “an example of a new sustainable way of building our campuses,” says Chung. Sustainably-sourced European spruce, pine, and fir trees make up the structure, with local cypress bringing warmth to interior detailing.

Read More

LAVA designs carbon-neutral LIFE Hamburg with an edible green roof

By Lucy Wang
Inhabitat
November 12, 2019
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: International

LAVA (Laboratory for Visionary Architecture) has teamed up with urban agricultural collective Cityplot to design LIFE Hamburg, a new energy self-sufficient educational campus that will “reinvent learning” for 1,600 students. Created in the shape of an infinity loop, the nature-inspired learning landscape encapsulates the educational paradigms of Learnlife (purpose-inspired and personal learning) as well as the spatial typology concepts of American futurist David Thornburg. Slated to open 2023, the solar-powered sustainable building will feature a carbon dioxide-absorbing green facade and an organic rooftop garden. …For energy efficiency, the architects have designed the three-story building with a load-bearing wood structure and a highly insulated glazed shell that will bring natural light inside. The accessible roof will be partly covered with enough solar panels to meet all of the building’s energy needs as well as outdoor learning spaces and edible gardens.

Read More

Forestry

Logging operations around community forest to reduce wildfire risks

By Trevor Crawley
BC Local News
November 12, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Logging operations on 105 hectares of Crown land around Cranbrook will commence over the winter months with the aim of reducing forest fuels and mitigating wildfire risks. BC Timber Sales initiated the project, with the work to be carried out by a local forestry contractor, according to a provincial government press release. The affected areas include a parcel of Crown land south of the Cranbrook Community Forest between Baker Mountain Road and the power line to the north of the roadway. “The goal is to reduce the number of trees in the wildland-urban interface, where urban development borders on grassland or forested areas, which will reduce the amount of forest fuels that could burn in the event of a wildfire,” reads a section of the government press release.

Read More

City receives annual drinking water quality report

By Carolyn Grant
The Kimberly Daily Bulletin
November 13, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

KIMBERLEY, BC — Each year, Kimberley City Council receives an annual report on the quality of Kimberley’s source drinking water in Mark and Matthew creeks. …The report indicates that both Mark and Matthew Creek met all standards under the BC Drinking Water Protection Regulation. The report also makes a number of recommendations: Mark Creek should be put forward as a case study to test the new Cumulative Effects Framework protocols for aquatic ecosystems, old growth forests. …the City should continue to work with BC Timber sales (BCTS), Teck and Canfor to enforce the motorized closure in Mark Creek. …The City should work with BC Timber Sales to stabilize the eroding slope upstream of the second bridge in Mark Creek to minimize the risk of future slope failure and subsequent turbidity in the source water for the City.

Read More

Where will we plant those two billion trees to fight the climate crisis?

By Aaron Beswick
The Chronicle Herald
November 12, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada East, Canada

A day after meeting teenage Swedish environmental activist Greta Thunberg, Prime Minister Trudeau promised a re-elected Liberal government would plant two billion trees over the next decade. Then Green Party leader Elizabeth May countered  that the number wasn’t high enough and said her party would plant 10 billion trees by 2050. Everybody gets that trees are good – they store carbon, create habitat for wildlife and places for us to enjoy. But for those who work with Canada’s forests – both to harvest and to protect them – it caused some head-scratching. Because while you can plant trees you can’t just plant a forest. And just planting trees isn’t necessarily a good thing – for us or the environment. …But that’s not as simple as it sounds. According to Natural Resources Canada, this country is 35 per cent forest. The areas that aren’t forested are primarily arctic tundra, lakes and rivers and prairie grassland.

Read More

Idaho forest restoration projects are already well underway

By Rick Tholen (SAF) and Kari Kostka (Nature Conservancy)
The Idaho Statesman
November 12, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

We wish to thank Idaho Statesman opinion editor Scott McIntosh for his recent four-part series on the condition and management of Idaho’s forests. …We agree a forest health crisis exists in Idaho. We agree climate change is further contributing to problems on the ground and that there is no single or short-term solution. …We do not agree, however, that the state’s new Shared Stewardship Initiative is just the start of cooperative forest management in Idaho. Grassroots collaborative organizations, each with unique membership and geographic focus, began forming all around the state more than a decade ago to address the health of Idaho’s forests. These groups of various stakeholders, which include loggers and environmentalists alike, have moved beyond long-standing disputes and weathered the hard road of building consensus agreements around forest management.

Read More

The impact of wildfires on fishing, streams

By Jim Strogen
Payson Roundup
November 12, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: United States, US West

There have been several stories in the Roundup recently on the extreme danger that our communities face because of unhealthy forest conditions. Quite honestly, there are too many young trees. These trees are a readily combustible fuel source that can cause a fire to climb into the crowns of larger trees and lead to catastrophic destruction of the forest, and possibly our communities. We need to do all we can to marshal action to address this problem with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), our state legislators, county and community leaders and the Arizona Corporation Commission. …When a fire destroys a forest, it also destroys the streams and lakes in its path. That includes streams below a fire-damaged area. When ash, mud and debris rush down a stream, it can wipe out entire aquatic populations. That includes the bug life fish depend on, native fish and any trout.

Read More

Rare deer-like species photographed for first time in wild

Associated Press in the Longview Daily News
November 12, 2019
Category: Forestry
Region: International

HANOI, Vietnam — A tiny deer-like species not seen by scientists for nearly 30 years has been photographed in a forest in southern Vietnam. Images of the silver-backed chevrotain, commonly called the Vietnamese mouse deer, were captured in the wild by trap cameras, Global Wildlife Conservation said. It said the rabbit-sized animal is not a deer or a mouse, despite its nickname, but is the world’s smallest hoofed mammal. They are shy and solitary, have two tiny fangs, appear to walk on the tips of their hooves, and have a silver sheen, the group said. “Discovering that it is, indeed, still out there, is the first step in ensuring we don’t lose it again, and we’re moving quickly now to figure out how best to protect it,” said An Nguyen, a conservation scientist at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, a partner of GWC in the project.

Read More

Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

Memo from a Climate Crisis Realist: The Choice before Us

By William E. Rees, professor emeritus of human ecology and ecological economics at the University of British Columbia
The Tyee
November 13, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: Canada, Canada West

William E. Rees

Human nature and our methods of governance are proving incapable of saving the world. We need to ‘get real’ about climate science. …Fact: Without a massive rapid course correction, CO2 emissions will continue to climb. This threatens humanity with ecological and social catastrophe as much of Earth becomes uninhabitable. …So, where might we go from here? A rational world with a good grasp of reality would have begun articulating a long-term wind-down strategy 20 or 30 years ago. The needed global emergency plan would certainly have included most of the 11 realistic responses to the climate crisis listed below — which, even if implemented today would at least slow the coming unravelling. And no, the currently proposed Green New Deal won’t do it. Here, then, is what an effective “Green New Deal” might look like:

Read More

Whither biomass? Michigan wood-fired power plants face uncertain future

By Andy Balaskovitz
The Energy News Network
November 12, 2019
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: US East, United States

Without policy support, plant operators in Michigan say they can’t compete with wind, solar and natural gas. Wood-fired power plants across Michigan’s Lower Peninsula will continue operating through the 2020s, but their life beyond that is uncertain amid declining wind and solar prices. A September ruling by Michigan regulators created a competitive bidding process for one of the state’s largest utilities, Consumers Energy, that will force biomass producers to compete directly with wind and solar once their contracts expire over the coming decade. Consumers has argued in recent years that contracts with independent producers under the federal Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) are too expensive. This includes wood-fired power plants as well as small hydropower and waste-to-energy.  Recent cases at the Michigan Public Service Commission involving PURPA largely focused on prices paid to new solar development, which is expected to scale up quickly in Michigan.

Read More

Health & Safety

Smoke has a serious impact on human health

By Peter Aleshire
Payson Roundup
November 12, 2019
Category: Health & Safety
Region: United States, US West

Bad news: Wildfire smoke contributes to 15,000 premature deaths every year, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Worse news: Expect 40,000 premature deaths per year by century’s end thanks to rising temperatures and bigger wildfires. Wildfire smoke can cause heart attacks, asthma and lung disease, contributing to the toll of cigarettes, auto exhaust and emissions from coal-fired power plants. …So does that mean the Forest Service’s plan to both repeatedly burn a million acres in Rim Country and the White Mountains will take a toll on human health? …Will controlled burns have less impact on human health than wildfires? Answer: Wildfires are definitely worse, according to the EIS and multiple studies. Can we reduce the impact of prescribed burns? Definitely. But more on that at the end of this latest series on the 4FRI environmental analysis. …But can we do something about the smoke from prescribed burns as well? That brings us back to burning biomass.

Read More

Forest Fires

Australia’s bush fires could last for months, with new rounds of dire conditions expected

By Andrew Freedman
The Washington Post
November 13, 2019
Category: Forest Fires
Region: International

One of the most dangerous bush fire days in the history of southeastern Australia, particularly from Greater Sydney north to Byron Bay, resulted Tuesday in numerous large and rapidly spreading blazes. But the day passed without the huge loss to life and property that was feared. It did, however, spark a political firestorm over the role that climate change is playing in intensifying the country’s bush fires. Firefighters are bracing for more dangerous conditions in coming days, as the entire Australian continent is projected to be in a rain void of sorts, with just a few showers occurring over Tasmania during the next 10 days. Tuesday featured more than 15 “emergency warnings” from the New South Wales Rural Fire Service, which included the dire and direct wording of “It is too late to leave. … Seek shelter as the fire approaches.”

Read More