Tree Frog Forestry News

Daily Archives: February 2, 2017

Today’s Takeaway

Ombudsman Says Rural-Urban Divide Exists for Injured Forest Workers

Tree Frog Forestry News
February 2, 2017
Category: Today's Takeaway

BC’s patchwork system of helicopter rescue means service to forest workers injured in remote areas “is lacking” according to a new report by BC’s Forest Safety Ombudsman, leaving “the province far behind the service available in Washington and Alaska”. Citing injury cases with long delays, Ombudsman Harris recommends legislation to “guarantee timely air ambulance responses to emergencies”.

Although wood-frame construction has long been known to perform well in an earthquake, a US expert “is warning BC of potential earthquake risk to wood-frame homes”. According to Peter Yanev, in the Vancouver Sun, “the single biggest action that can be taken to reduce risk is to ensure the frame is bolted to the concrete foundation”. And speaking of wood and technnology, several stories today highlight the government’s announcement of a new laboratory at UNBC in Prince George to “test the structural properties and alternative possibilities of wood”.

In business news, Resolute Forest Products is first out of the gate with its Q4 results (a net loss of $.50 per share), J.D. Irving has launched a suit against private woodlot owners in New Brunswick and Tolko is “helping their workers cope” in the aftermath of the death of a co-worker this week.

Finally, parroting the language used by President Trump—in a question to his Press Secretary—Portland talk show host Lars Larson asks for “aggressive logging”.

— Tree Frog Editors

Read More

Froggy Foibles

Harris Eisenstadt’s Old Growth Forest is a conversation

By Alexander Varty
Georgia Straight
February 1, 2017
Category: Froggy Foibles
Region: Canada, Canada West

For some, old-growth forests are places of contemplation, naturally sacred spaces of cathedralesque calm, lit by slanting beams of leaf-filtered light. For others, they are living warehouses of board feet ready for extraction. And even though he maintains that he has no explicitly environmental message, it’s easy to see where Harris Eisenstadt stands on this spectrum: his new quartet is called Old Grown Forest, and on its self-titled debut the tracks are named for towering conifers such as “Larch”, “Redwood”, “Hemlock”, and “Fir”… It’s democratic music, in other words. But is it also a political or environmental statement?

Read More

Business & Politics

Tolko helps workers cope

By David Wylie
Castanet
February 1, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Tolko says it’s providing help for employees to cope with the death of a co-worker in Kelowna this week. Ivor Lundin died Monday night at the mill in downtown Kelowna when the boat he was in sank in Okanagan Lake at about 9:30 p.m. Searchers using an underwater camera determined he was still inside the boat. “As a company, we are extremely saddened by this loss of life and our thoughts are with the family and loved ones of the deceased during this difficult time,” said Brad Thorlakson, president and CEO. “We also know that the coming days and weeks will be difficult for our Kelowna employees and we will be providing assistance to them during this time.” Tolko said counselling will be available at the workplace and by phone as crews return to work.

Read More

Update on Softwood Lumber File

By Elaine Macdonald-Meisner
250 News
February 1, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada, Canada West

Prince George, B.C.- The United States remains a critically important market for Canadian softwood lumber, but with the end of the Softwood Lumber Agreement, and a new administration that favours “America First” reaching a new agreement is no easy feat. Always the solution is a negotiated settlement, says Colin Barker, Director of the Softwood Lumber Division with the Government of Canada . Talks have been on going since January of 2016, and the Federal Government continues to work closely with industry, provinces, union and indigenous groups. But there are trade actions levelled against Canada, and Barker says for the first time, the US Department of Commerce is launching investigations into four specific forest companies.

Read More

Troubled Hefler Forest Products being sold

By James Risdon
Chronicle Herald
February 1, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada


A merchant bank managed by the fourth generation of the Jodrey family and a wind farm company are scooping up the assets of financially-strapped Hefler Forest Products for an undisclosed amount. The deal is set to close Feb. 24. Hefler Forest Products president Floyd Gaetz did not return calls for comment on the pending sale Wednesday. But a document filed with the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia reveals that Helfer Forest Products has inked a deal with Halifax-based 3304051 Nova Scotia Ltd., a company whose directors include merchant bank Hawthorne Capital president Trevor Hennigar and Stan Mason of Katalyst Wind Inc., a developer of utility-scale wind energy projects. In seven years, Katalyst has secured $60 million in financing for six wind power projects.

Read More

J.D. Irving launches suit against woodlot groups

By Connell Smith
CBC News
February 2, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada

J.D. Irving Ltd. has launched a lawsuit against two groups representing private woodlot owners in southern New Brunswick. The outcome could have far-reaching implications for the way private wood is bought and sold in New Brunswick and the price obtained by individual woodlot owners. The lawsuit asks the Court of Queen’s Bench to declare a contract between the SNB Forest Products Marketing Board and its sister group, the SNB Wood Cooperative, unlawful. At the root of the case is a 2015 order issued by the co-operative declaring that wood from private woodlots can only be sold to the marketing board, and wood purchasers can only buy from the board. JDI stopped buying wood from SNB in 2012 but has been making deals directly with woodlot owners within SNB’s provincially designated boundaries.

Read More

Resolute Reports Preliminary Fourth Quarter and 2016 Results

By Resolute Forest Products Inc.
Canada Newswire
February 2, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: Canada East, Canada

MONTRÉAL—Resolute Forest Products Inc. (NYSE: RFP) (TSX: RFP) today reported a net loss for the quarter ended December 31, 2016, of $45 million, or $0.50 per share, compared to a GAAP net loss of $214 million, or $2.39 per share, in the same period in 2015. Sales were $889 million in the quarter, essentially unchanged from the fourth quarter of 2015. Excluding special items, the company reported a net loss of $3 million, or $0.03 per share, compared to a net loss of $26 million, or $0.29 per share, in the fourth quarter of 2015. For the year, the company reported a GAAP net loss of $81 million, or $0.90 per share, compared to a net loss of $257 million, or $2.78 per share, in 2015.

Read More

Lars Larson asks for aggressive logging during White House briefing

By Lizzy Acker
The Oregonian
February 1, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: United States

Lars Larson, Portland’s conservative radio talk show host, had his moment to question the White House on Wednesday, when he was the third Skype seat to be allowed to ask a question during the daily press briefing. …”The federal government is the biggest landlord in America. Does President Trump want to start returning the people’s land to the people,” Larson said, adding, “can he tell the Forest Service to start logging our forests aggressively again to provide jobs for Americans, wealth for the treasury and not spend three and a half billion dollars a year fighting forest fires?” …Spicer thanked Larson for his two questions and answered that Trump has been “very clear” that as part of an energy plan “we’ve got to utilize the resources that we have that the federal government owns whether that’s the forest or natural resources or minerals that exist above and below the ground.”

Read More

Heyfield locals warn timber mill shutdown would be a ‘disaster’

By James Hancock
ABC News, Australia
February 2, 2017
Category: Business & Politics
Region: International


A packed community meeting at Heyfield in regional Victoria has heard that without the local timber mill the place will become a “ghost town”. A crowd of more than 1,000 spilled into the foyer of the Memorial Hall and some watched on a television screen outside. Australian Sustainable Hardwoods (ASH) has said it would shut down the mill and start laying off its 250 staff by September unless log supply is increased. Under the current deal with state-owned logging company VicForests, the mill receives about 150,000 cubic metres of native regrowth timber each year. But ASH’s chief executive Vince Hurley said over the next three years it is only being offered between 60,000 and 80,000 cubic metres of timber, which would make the business unviable.

Read More

Wood, Paper & Green Building

U.S. expert warns B.C. of potential earthquake risk to wood-frame homes

By Gordon Hoekstra
The Vancouver Sun
February 1, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

A leading Californian seismic engineer has warned the B.C. government that unexpected severe damage to wood-frame housing in a deadly 2016 Japanese earthquake has serious implications for the province. Peter Yanev, who has advised the World Bank on earthquake engineering and is the author of Peace of Mind in Earthquake Country, told B.C. government officials responsible for emergency management he was particularly concerned because the type of wood-frame construction in Japan is very similar to that used on the west coast of Canada and the U.S., and the terrain was similar. The Kumamoto earthquake in Japan in April 2016 killed about 50 people, injured another 3,000 and displaced about 44,000 people from their homes.

Read More

Canada and British Columbia invest in Wood Innovation Research Lab at UNBC

By the Government of BC
Government of British Columbia
February 1, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

Premier Christy Clark today announced a $4.5-million joint federal-provincial investment that will accelerate innovation in timber engineering and development of wood products at the University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC). Premier Clark made the announcement during the Natural Resource Forum in Prince George on behalf of the Province of B.C. and the Honourable Navdeep Bains, Minister of Innovation, Science and Economic Development. Of the $4.5-million investment: $1.88 million from the Government of Canada. $2.62 million from the Government of British Columbia. The City of Prince George is providing land for the facility in downtown Prince George, adjacent to the Wood Innovation and Design Centre. The Wood Innovation Research Lab will be used by students in the master of engineering in integrated wood design program and the B.C. leadership chair in tall wood and hybrid structures engineering.

Read More

‘Wood Innovation’ laboratory being built in Prince George

By Andrew Kurjata
CBC News
February 1, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

The University of Northern British Columbia (UNBC) is getting a downtown laboratory to test out new uses of wood as part of their engineering program in downtown Prince George. The Wood Innovation Research Lab will be used by students in the master of engineering in wood design program being run out of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre. “We really needed a much larger lab facility in order for our students to build much larger wood structures to do everything from testing how wood is put together to seismic events to large-scale wood models,” said UNBC president Daniel Weeks…”We’re getting interest from students all over the world,” he said. “I was in China … they’ve heard of our wood engineering program so we’re already making a name for ourselves.”

Read More

New UNBC facility planned downtown

By Frank Peebles
Prince George Citizen
February 1, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: Canada, Canada West

High-tech and all-natural will soon be hammered together at a new building in downtown Prince George. Futuristic forestry has a new home on the national landscape. A customized laboratory and research centre is on the way, especially designed to test the structural properties and alternative possibilities of wood. Some of this work is already being done at the Wood Innovation and Design Centre (WIDC), where the Emily Carr University of Art + Design has a wood-focused education and creation program, and UNBC has a pair of masters-level wood engineering programs. The new Wood Innovation Research Lab (WIRL) will be built right beside it. Inside, UNBC will consolidate its other educational programs that involve wood technologies, creating a power centre for the research and development on the cutting edge of the forest industry.

Read More

Paper and Plastic Recycling Holding Steady

by Maura Keller
American Recycler
February 1, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: United States

The paper and plastic recycling industries are in a constant state of flux. In a recent report by the American Forest and Paper Association, the U.S. paper recovery rate increased by 1.4 percentage points in 2015 to a record-high 66.8 percent. The previous high point of 66.4 percent was recorded in 2011. However, plastic bottle recycling held nearly steady in 2015, with a slight decrease of 0.5 percent from 2014, according to figures released by the Association of Plastic Recyclers (APR) and the American Chemistry Council (ACC)... According to Paul Kaufmann, founder of Shred Spot in Northbrook, Illinois, it is easier to recycle paper and pricing is on an upswing. “The top of the upswing is at $170 per ton in our area. In 2011, the sorted office paper (SOP) went as high as $290 per ton, but dropped quickly and has mostly been in the $120 to $150 ton range,” Kaufmann aid. “The market for our paper is doing pretty well as we don’t have an issue finding a mill to buy it. 

Read More

Building Up Biomaterials

By Stefanie Sidortsova
Michigan Technological University
January 30, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: US East, United States

What do furniture makers, the auto industry and foresters all have in common? A need for innovation in Michigan forest biomaterials. …According to Mark Rudnicki, a professor of practice in forest biomaterials at Michigan Technological University, Michigan ranks ninth in the nation in acres of forest cover. It’s also home to several forest-related industries, including forestry and logging, wood products manufacturing and paper manufacturing. In 2013, Michigan Tech initiated the development of a broad coalition – with members from Michigan industry, government and academia – to facilitate the cultivation of new ways to use forest biomaterials.

Read More

Timber Revolutionizes High-Rise Construction

From the Australian Smart Skyscrapers Summit
Sat Press Releases
February 1, 2017
Category: Wood, Paper & Green Building
Region: International

Timber construction could revolutionise skyscraper typology, says Dr Philip Oldfield, Senior Lecturer in the Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales. Dr Oldfield will be appearing at the inaugural Australian Smart Skyscrapers Summit in Melbourne to discuss opportunities for rethinking Australian tall building design inspired by climate, culture and context. …Australia is already home to some impressive timber structures, including the Forte Apartments in Melbourne which held the title of the world’s tallest timber building before the recent construction of an 18-storey timber tower in Vancouver by Acton Ostry Architects. …The Australian Smart Skyscraper Summit will be held on the 28-29th March 2017 at the Melbourne Convention and Exhibition Centre.

Read More

Forestry

Tree Canada announces major investment to restore forest and urban greenspaces destroyed by Fort McMurray fires

By Tree Canada
Canada Newswire
February 2, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

EDMONTON – Tree Canada, the nation’s leading national tree planting charity, today announced a more than $1 million investment to restore the forests destroyed by the devastating Fort McMurray wildfires last year. Following overwhelming support from corporate partners and everyday Canadians, Tree Canada announced that plantings will begin this spring. Tree Canada’s “Operation ReLeaf – Fort McMurray” program will begin planting trees in publically-owned natural, forested areas to facilitate forest regrowth according to Fire Smart standards. Discussions are also underway to replace trees lost in adjacent First Nation communities. The restoration project will continue at least into 2018, and possibly into 2019 with a focus on residential trees and street trees scheduled to be planted.

Read More

B.C. commits $27 million to enhance caribou recovery

By the Office of the Premier
Government of British Columbia
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

Demonstrating the province’s commitment to species-at-risk, the Province is investing $27 million on a comprehensive, caribou recovery program, Premier Christy Clark announced today at the 14th Annual Premier’s B.C. Natural Resources Forum. “We’re taking action to protect the long-term survival of the woodland caribou,” said Premier Clark. “We’ve already invested millions of dollars and set aside critical habitat, but stronger action is required to reverse population declines, and ensure that our children and grandchildren have the opportunity to experience these animals in the wild.”

Read More

Wood pile burning planned in Naramata area

By the BC Wildfire Service
Government of British Columbia
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

The BC Wildfire Service is planning to burn about 200 piles of wood debris in an area near the Arawana Forest Service Road, about five kilometres east of Naramata. These burns may start as early as Wednesday, Feb. 1, 2017, and will be concluded by the end of April 2017. Smoke may be visible in the surrounding area, including Naramata, Penticton and Summerland. These burns are being conducted as part of an ongoing fuel management project, in partnership with the Regional District of Okanagan-Similkameen. The exact timing of the burns will depend on weather conditions, site conditions and snow cover, and will proceed only if venting conditions are favourable. All such burns must comply with the Environmental Management Act and the open burning smoke control regulation to help minimize the amount of smoke generated.

Read More

Ombudsman reports serious gaps in access to helicopter emergency transport for rural workers

BC Forest Safety Council
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

VICTORIA – Injured forestry workers in remote or rural parts of the province must wait – often for many hours – to access air ambulance, reports the BC Forest Safety Ombudsman in a report released today. “Rural communities today are impacted twice compared to urban centres – first, in reduced access to medical care and again in reduced access to emergency medical transportation,” said BC Forest Safety Ombudsman Roger Harris. “For remote communities, as the distance to the nearest medical facility increases, the access to HEMS should be enhanced, not reduced.”… The report recommends that the provincial government: guarantee timelines for all residents to be able to access Trauma 3 Level care, similar to other jurisdictions; review the Emergency Health Services Act to allow for flexibility when it comes to expanding the scope of practice and role of First Responders in the transportation of accident victims; and expand the use of hoisting to reduce time to extract and transfer patients to medical facilities.

Read More

Rural air ambulance response lacking: ombudsman

By Tom Fletcher
BC Local News
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

B.C.’s patchwork system of helicopter rescue for people injured in remote areas leaves the province far behind the service available in Washington and Alaska, says a new report by B.C.’s Forest Safety Ombudsman. Ombudsman Roger Harris looked at cases of forest workers injured in the woods, but expanded his findings to describe a “rural-urban divide” where people wait hours for transport to trauma centres, worsening their medical outcomes. He cited the case of a faller working on Haida Gwaii, whose leg was crushed by a fallen tree in 2014. It took five hours to get him to the hospital in Queen Charlotte City, and another six hours to transfer him to Vancouver where his lower leg had to be amputated.

Read More

Forest Safety Ombudsman says injured workers face ambulance delays in rural B.C.

By Dirk Meissner
Canadian Press in the Vancouver Sun
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: Canada, Canada West

VICTORIA — Esko Saarinen says he was freezing, shaking, bleeding and in shock. The forestry worker’s left leg was crushed in a tree-felling accident on Haida Gwaii off British Columbia’s north coast and he remembers co-workers covering him in blankets, telling him to hang on, help was coming. Saarinen said it took five hours via two separate boats and a bumpy ride on a mechanic’s truck to get him to the nearest hospital at Queen Charlotte City, which would have taken 20 minutes in a helicopter. He then waited another six hours for an air ambulance flight to a hospital in Vancouver, where doctors amputated his left leg below the knee….The ombudsman’s report — titled “Will It Be There?” — recommended the introduction of legislation to guarantee timely air ambulance responses to emergencies at rural work sites and communities.

Read More

Rare national fire advisory issued for drought-hit Oklahoma

By Justin Juozapavicius
Associated Press in Helena Independent Record
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

TULSA, Okla. — Oklahoma has been placed under a national fire advisory as much of the state struggles with unrelenting drought and tinder-dry vegetation capable of igniting and quickly spreading out of control, state forestry officials said Wednesday. The rare advisory — and the first for Oklahoma — issued by the National Interagency Fire Center in Boise, Idaho, is in effect for two weeks and warns residents and fire departments to prepare for potentially severe wildfires. The national center also cautioned that areas in the neighboring states of Texas, Colorado, New Mexico and Kansas could be ripe for similar extreme wildfires through February. 

Read More

Forestry Program Donates $575K to Children’s Hospital Arkansas Business

Arkansas Business
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: US East, United States

The Arkansas Children’s Foundation announced Monday that the Arkansas Forestry Association’s Log A Load for Kids program has donated $575,000 for the Emergency Department/Trauma Center at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. This completes the program’s four-year pledge to raise $2 million for the state-of-the-art department and unit in the hospital’s new South Wing. “Throughout the last two decades, we have given $9 million to support the growth of Arkansas Children’s Hospital and we are grateful to be a part of the lifesaving care provided in the emergency department and across the hospital,” Max Braswell, executive vice president of Arkansas Forestry Association, said in a news release.

Read More

Tasmania’s giant freshwater crayfish threatened by logging plan: conservationists

By Damian McIntyre
ABC News, Australia
February 2, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: International

An environmental group is stepping up its campaign against the harvesting of timber from a coupe in north-west Tasmania because of the presence of a giant freshwater crayfish population. This week a group from the Bob Brown Foundation has been monitoring the population in the Frankland River, located in the Tarkine Wilderness Area in north-west Tasmania. The river is within 400,000 hectares of reserve land that the State Government plans to open up for logging. Bob Brown Foundation campaigner Scott Jordan said it would threaten the crayfish population. …”Unfortunately it’s all at risk if logging upstream commences and the sediment and siltation that we’ve come to expect from logging comes down that catchment and impacts on these animals.”

Read More

First step in saving Northland native forests from collapse

By Forest & Bird
Scoop Independent News
February 2, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: International

Forest & Bird is welcoming today’s announcement from Minister Maggie Barry to increase predator control in Northland, and believe it is a good start towards saving the region’s forests from collapse. Minister of Conservation Maggie Barry announced today that the Department of Conservation is committing to work with local hap? to design a multi-species pest control programme for Russell State Forest to be carried out over 20 years, with an extra $380,000 spent on predator control in Northland this financial year. Forest & Bird’s Northland Conservation Advocate Dean Baigent-Mercer is hopeful that increased and ongoing pest control will allow birds that have recently became extinct in the area, like k?k? and k?k?riki, to return from nearby offshore islands where they survive in the absence of introduced predators.

Read More

Forest protection funds flow to DRC despite ‘illegal’ logging permits

By John Cannon
Mongabay
February 1, 2017
Category: Forestry
Region: International

The government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has received millions of dollars aimed at stopping deforestation and promoting sustainable development from donor countries and organizations despite breaching a moratorium on new logging concessions, claims the environmental NGO Greenpeace. Congolese leaders suspended the issuance of logging rights in 2002 to get a handle on the protection of the country’s forests after a brutal civil war. However, Greenpeace reported today DRC’s former Minister of the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Sustainable Development Robert Bopolo Mbongeza, greenlighted two concessions, totaling 4,000 square kilometers (1,544 square miles), to the Groupe Les Bâtisseurs du Congo (GBC) and to a group known only as “APC.”

Read More

Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy

Oregon far short of greenhouse gas emissions goals, report says

By Ted Sickinger
The Oregonian
February 1, 2017
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States, US West

Oregon is not reducing carbon dioxide emissions fast enough to meet its goals for 2020 and beyond, a new report finds. In fact, it’s not even close. Those are the findings of a biennial report the Oregon Global Warming Commission will deliver to state lawmakers this week, and they come despite ambitious legislation passed to cut emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors. …For the first time, the commission’s report to the Legislature also includes an accounting of the carbon sequestered in the state’s forests. The carbon data, which is still being peer reviewed, is among the first of its kind in the United States and could have broad and potentially controversial implications for forest management policy.  The report comes on the heels of a state climate change report card issued by environmental advocates that highlights successes and challenges in achieving the state’s emissions reductions goals. I

Read More

Buffett’s Rocky Mountain to Test Biomass That May Cut Coal Use

By Jess Shankleman
Bloomberg
January 31, 2017
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: United States, US West

Rocky Mountain Power, a unit of Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway Inc., will test a new biomass fuel that may reduce the amount of coal being burned by power plants. The U.S. utility, which is part of Pacificorp, will use a plant in Utah to test a biomass fuel made by Active Energy Group Plc, Paul Murphy, a spokesman for RMP, said by phone. Active Energy’s fuel, called CoalSwitch, is processed from low-grade forestry residue. Active Energy, which manages woodlands and develops clean-energy products, is seeking to supply its fuel to utilities willing to switch to biomass in order to cut carbon emissions. The London-based in November obtained funding for its first industrial-scale plant. It will be located in Canada and turn waste and wood into CoalSwitch.

Read More

Forestry firm UPM says eyeing next biofuel investment

By Jussi Rosendahl
Reuters
February 1, 2017
Category: Carbon, Climate & Bioenergy
Region: International


Finnish pulp and paper maker UPM-Kymmene is planning its next step in wood-based renewable fuel products after a successful ramp-up at its initial biofuels plant, the head of UPM’s biofuels business said on Wednesday. UPM says the plant in Lappeenranta is the first in the world of its kind, making biofuel for vehicles and ships from crude tall oil, a residue of wood pulp production that produces significantly lower emissions than traditional fossil diesel. The plant, which reached break-even late in 2015, improved profitability further in 2016, said Sari Mannonen, the head of UPM’s biofuels business. “We were able to improve our production efficiency clearly and the biofuel market was very favorable in the last quarter of the year,” she told Reuters on the sidelines of a biofuels conference, without giving exact figures.

Read More